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The :target CSS pseudo-class represents a unique element (the target element) with an id matching the URL's fragment.

/* Selects an element with an ID matching the current URL's fragment */
:target {
  border: 2px solid black;
}

For example, the following URL has a fragment (denoted by the # sign) that points to an element called section2:

http://www.example.com/index.html#section2

The following element would be selected by a :target selector when the current URL is equal to the above:

<section id="section2">Example</section>

Syntax

:target

Examples

A table of contents

The :target pseudo-class can be used to highlight the portion of a page that has been linked to from a table of contents.

HTML

<h3>Table of Contents</h3>
<ol>
 <li><a href="#p1">Jump to the first paragraph!</a></li>
 <li><a href="#p2">Jump to the second paragraph!</a></li>
 <li><a href="#nowhere">This link goes nowhere,
   because the target doesn't exist.</a></li>
</ol>

<h3>My Fun Article</h3>
<p id="p1">You can target <i>this paragraph</i> using a
  URL fragment. Click on the link above to try out!</p>
<p id="p2">This is <i>another paragraph</i>, also accessible
  from the links above. Isn't that delightful?</p>

CSS

p:target {
  background-color: gold;
}

/* Add a pseudo-element inside the target element */
p:target::before {
  font: 70% sans-serif;
  content: "►";
  color: limegreen;
  margin-right: .25em;
}

/* Style italic elements within the target element */
p:target i {
  color: red;
}

Result

Pure-CSS lightbox

You can use the :target pseudo-class to create a lightbox without using any JavaScript. This technique relies on the ability of anchor links to point to elements that are initially hidden on the page. Once targeted, the CSS changes their display so that they are shown.

Note: A more complete pure-CSS lightbox based on the :target pseudo-class is available on GitHub (demo).

HTML

<ul>
  <li><a href="#example1">Open example #1</a></li>
  <li><a href="#example2">Open example #2</a></li>
</ul>

<div class="lightbox" id="example1">
  <figure>
    <a href="#" class="close"></a>
    <figcaption>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.
      Donec felis enim, placerat id eleifend eu, semper vel sem.</figcaption>
  </figure>
</div>

<div class="lightbox" id="example2">
  <figure>
    <a href="#" class="close"></a>
    <figcaption>Cras risus odio, pharetra nec ultricies et,
      mollis ac augue. Nunc et diam quis sapien dignissim auctor.
      Quisque quis neque arcu, nec gravida magna.</figcaption>
  </figure>
</div>

CSS

/* Unopened lightbox */
.lightbox {
  display: none;
}

/* Opened lightbox */
.lightbox:target {
  position: absolute;
  left: 0;
  top: 0;
  width: 100%;
  height: 100%;
  display: flex;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
}

/* Lightbox content */
.lightbox figcaption {
  width: 25rem;
  position: relative;
  padding: 1.5em;
  background-color: lightpink;
}

/* Close button */
.lightbox .close {
  position: relative;
  display: block;
}

.lightbox .close::after {
  right: -1rem;
  top: -1rem;
  width: 2rem;
  height: 2rem;
  position: absolute;
  display: flex;
  z-index: 1;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
  background-color: black;
  border-radius: 50%;
  color: white;
  content: "×";
  cursor: pointer;
}

/* Lightbox overlay */
.lightbox .close::before {
  left: 0;
  top: 0;
  width: 100%;
  height: 100%;
  position: fixed;
  background-color: rgba(0,0,0,.7);
  content: "";
  cursor: default;
}

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
HTML Living Standard
The definition of ':target' in that specification.
Living Standard Defines HTML-specific semantics.
Selectors Level 4
The definition of ':target' in that specification.
Working Draft No changes.
Selectors Level 3
The definition of ':target' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Edge Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
Basic support 1.0 (Yes) 1.0 (1.7 or earlier) 9 9.5 1.3
Feature Android Edge Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support 2.1 (Yes) 1.0 (1.7 or earlier) 9.0 9.5 2.0

See also

Schlagwörter des Dokuments und Mitwirkende

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 Zuletzt aktualisiert von: mfluehr,