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The text-orientation CSS property defines the orientation of the text characters in a line. This property only has an effect in vertical mode, that is, when writing-mode is not horizontal-tb. It is useful for controlling the display of languages that use vertical script, and also for making vertical table headers.

/* Keyword values */
text-orientation: mixed;
text-orientation: upright;
text-orientation: sideways-right;
text-orientation: sideways;
text-orientation: use-glyph-orientation;

/* Global values */
text-orientation: inherit;
text-orientation: initial;
text-orientation: unset;

Initial valuemixed
Applies toall elements, except table row groups, rows, column groups, and columns
Computed valueas specified
Animation typediscrete
Canonical orderthe unique non-ambiguous order defined by the formal grammar


The text-orientation property is specified as a single keyword from the list below.


Rotates the characters of horizontal scripts 90°. Lays out the characters of vertical scripts naturally. Default value.
Lays out the characters of horizontal scripts naturally (upright), as well as the glyphs for vertical scripts. Note that this keyword causes all characters to be considered as left-to-right: the used value of direction is forced to be ltr.
Causes characters to be laid out as if they were laid out horizontally, but with the whole line rotated 90° to the right if writing-mode is vertical-rl, or to the left if it is vertical-lr.
An alias to sideways that is kept for compatibility purposes.
On SVG elements, this keyword leads to use the value of the deprecated SVG properties glyph-orientation-vertical and glyph-orientation-horizontal.

Formal syntax

mixed | upright | sideways



<p>Lorem ipsum dolet semper quisquam.</p>


p {
  writing-mode: vertical-rl;
  text-orientation: upright;



Specification Status Comment
CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3
The definition of 'text-orientation' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari (WebKit)
Basic support (Yes) -webkit
48.0 (unprefixed)
41 (41)[1] No support (Yes) -webkit No support
sideways No support 44 (44)[2] No support No support No support
Feature Android Android Webview Chrome for Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Phone Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support No support 48.0 48.0 41.0 (41)[1] No support No support No support
sideways No support No support No support 44.0 (44)[2] No support No support No support

[1] Available since Gecko 38 (Firefox 38.0 / Thunderbird 38.0 / SeaMonkey 2.35), but behind the preference layout.css.vertical-text.enabled, then set to false by default. The preference has been removed in Gecko 51 (Firefox 51.0 / Thunderbird 51.0 / SeaMonkey 2.48) and this property cannot be disabled anymore since this version.

[2] sideways-right has been made an alias of sideways.

See also

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