scale3d()

The scale3d() CSS function defines a transformation that resizes an element in 3D space. Because the amount of scaling is defined by a vector, it can resize different dimensions at different scales. Its result is a <transform-function> data type.

This scaling transformation is characterized by a three-dimensional vector. Its coordinates define how much scaling is done in each direction. If all three coordinates are equal, the scaling is uniform (isotropic) and the aspect ratio of the element is preserved (this is a homothetic transformation).

When a coordinate value is outside the [-1, 1] range, the element grows along that dimension; when inside, it shrinks. If it is negative, the result a point reflection in that dimension. A value of 1 has no effect.

Syntax

The scale3d() function is specified with three values, which represent the amount of scaling to be applied in each direction.

scale3d(sx, sy, sz)

Values

sx

Is a <number> representing the abscissa of the scaling vector.

sy

Is a <number> representing the ordinate of the scaling vector.

sz

Is a <number> representing the z-component of the scaling vector.

Cartesian coordinates on ℝ^2 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ^2 Cartesian coordinates on ℝ^3 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ^3
This transformation applies to the 3D space and can't be represented on the plane. sx 0 0 0 sy 0 0 0 sz sx 0 0 0 0 sy 0 0 0 0 sz 0 0 0 0 1

Examples

Without changing the origin

HTML

<div>Normal</div>
<div class="scaled">Scaled</div>

CSS

div {
  width: 80px;
  height: 80px;
  background-color: skyblue;
}

.scaled {
  transform: perspective(500px) scale3d(2, 0.7, 0.2) translateZ(100px);
  background-color: pink;
}

Result

Translating the origin of the transformation

HTML

<div>Normal</div>
<div class="scaled">Scaled</div>

CSS

div {
  width: 80px;
  height: 80px;
  background-color: skyblue;
}

.scaled {
  transform: perspective(500px) scale3d(2, 0.7, 0.2) translateZ(100px);
  transform-origin: left;
  background-color: pink;
}

Result

Specifications

Specification
CSS Transforms Module Level 2 (CSS Transforms 2)
# funcdef-scale3d

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also