JavaScript reference

The JavaScript reference serves as a repository of facts about the JavaScript language. The entire language is described here in detail. As you write JavaScript code, you'll refer to these pages often (thus the title "JavaScript reference").

The JavaScript language is intended to be used within some larger environment, be it a browser, server-side scripts, or similar. For the most part, this reference attempts to be environment-agnostic and does not target a web browser environment.

If you are new to JavaScript, start with the guide. Once you have a firm grasp of the fundamentals, you can use the reference to get more details on individual objects and language constructs.


JavaScript standard built-in objects, along with their methods and properties.

Value properties

Function properties

Fundamental objects

Error objects

Numbers and dates

Text processing

Indexed collections

Keyed collections

Structured data

Managing memory

Control abstraction objects




Control flow

Declaring variables

Functions and classes



Expressions and operators

Primary expressions

Left-hand-side expressions

Increment and decrement

Unary operators

Arithmetic operators

Relational operators

Equality operators

Bitwise shift operators

Binary bitwise operators

Binary logical operators

Conditional (ternary) operator

Assignment operators

Yield operators

Spread syntax

Comma operator



Additional reference pages