This is an experimental technology
Because this technology's specification has not stabilized, check the compatibility table for the proper prefixes to use in various browsers. Also note that the syntax and behavior of an experimental technology is subject to change in future versions of browsers as the spec changes.

The CSS transform property lets you modify the coordinate space of the CSS visual formatting model. Using it, elements can be translated, rotated, scaled, and skewed.

If the property has a value different than none, a stacking context will be created. In that case the object will act as a containing block for position: fixed elements that it contains.

  • Initial value none
  • Applies to transformable elements
  • Inherited no
  • Percentages refer to the size of bounding box
  • Media visual
  • Computed value as specified, but with relative lengths converted into absolute lengths
  • Animatable yes, as a transform
  • Canonical order the unique non-ambiguous order defined by the formal grammar


/* Keyword values */
transform: none;

/* Function values */
transform: matrix(1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0);
transform: translate(12px, 50%);
transform: translateX(2em);
transform: translateY(3in);
transform: scale(2, 0.5);
transform: scaleX(2);
transform: scaleY(0.5);
transform: rotate(0.5turn);
transform: skewX(30deg);
transform: skewY(1.07rad);
transform: matrix3d(1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, 12.0, 13.0, 14.0, 15.0, 16.0);
transform: translate3d(12px, 50%, 3em);
transform: translateZ(2px);
transform: scale3d(2.5, 1.2, 0.3);
transform: scaleZ(0.3);
transform: rotate3d(1, 2.0, 3.0, 10deg);
transform: rotateX(10deg);
transform: rotateY(10deg);
transform: rotateZ(10deg);
transform: perspective(17px);

/* Multiple function values */
transform: translateX(10px) rotate(10deg) translateY(5px);

/* Global values */
transform: inherit;
transform: initial;
transform: unset;


One or more of the CSS transform functions to be applied, see below.
Specifies that no transform should be applied.

Formal syntax

none | <transform-list>

<transform-list> = <transform-function>+


See Using CSS transforms.

Live example

HTML Content

<p>Transformed element</p>

CSS Content

p {
  border: solid red;

  -webkit-transform: translate(100px) rotate(20deg);
  -webkit-transform-origin: 0 -250px;

  transform: translate(100px) rotate(20deg);
  transform-origin: 0 -250px;


Specification Status Comment
CSS Transforms Level 1
The definition of 'transform' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
Basic support

(Yes) -webkit

3.5 (1.9.1)-moz[1]
16.0 (16.0)[2]
3D Support 12.0-webkit
16.0 (16.0)
10.0 15.0-webkit
Feature Android Chrome for Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support 2.1-webkit[4] (Yes)-webkit (Yes) (Yes)
11.5-webkit 3.2 (Yes)-webkit
3D Support 3.0-webkit (Yes)-webkit (Yes) (Yes) 22-webkit 3.2 (Yes)-webkit

[1] Gecko 14.0 removed the experimental support for skew(), but it was reintroduced in Gecko 15.0 for compatibility reasons. As it is non-standard and will likely be removed in the future, do not use it.

[2] Before Firefox 16, the translation values of matrix() and matrix3d() could be <length>, in addition to the standard <number>.

[3] Internet Explorer 5.5 or later supports a proprietary Matrix Filter which can be used to achieve a similar effect.

Internet Explorer 9.0 or earlier has no support for 3D transforms, mixing 3D and 2D transform functions. such as -ms-transform:rotate(10deg) translateZ(0); will prevent the entire property from being applied.

[4] Android 2.3 has a bug where input forms will "jump" when typing, if any container element has a -webkit-transform.

[5] Internet Explorer 11.0 supports the -webkit prefixed variant as an alias for the default one.

See also