The perspective CSS property determines the distance between the z=0 plane and the user in order to give a 3D-positioned element some perspective. Each 3D element with z>0 becomes larger; each 3D-element with z<0 becomes smaller. The strength of the effect is determined by the value of this property.

/* Keyword value */
perspective: none;

/* <length> values */
perspective: 20px;  
perspective: 3.5em;

/* Global values */
perspective: inherit;
perspective: initial;
perspective: unset;

The parts of the 3D elements that are behind the user — i.e. their z-axis coordinates are greater than the value of the perspective CSS property — are not drawn.

The vanishing point is by default placed at the center of the element, but its position can be changed using the perspective-origin property.

Using this property with a value different than 0 and none creates a new stacking context. Also, in that case, the object will act as a containing block for position: fixed elements that it contains.

Initial valuenone
Applies totransformable elements
Inheritedno
Mediavisual
Computed valuethe absolute length or none
Animation typea length
Canonical orderthe unique non-ambiguous order defined by the formal grammar
Creates stacking contextyes

Syntax

Values

none
Is a keyword indicating that no perspective transform has to be applied.
<length>
Is a <length> giving the distance from the user to the z=0 plane. It is used to apply a perspective transform to the element and its content. If it 0 or a negative value, no perspective transform is applied.

Formal syntax

none | <length>

Example

HTML content

<table>
  <tbody>
    <tr>
      <th><code>perspective: 250px;</code>
      </th>
      <th><code>perspective: 350px;</code>
      </th>
      <th><code>perspective: 500px;</code>
      </th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>
        <div class="container">
          <div class="cube pers250">
            <div class="face front">1</div>
            <div class="face back">2</div>
            <div class="face right">3</div>
            <div class="face left">4</div>
            <div class="face top">5</div>
            <div class="face bottom">6</div>
          </div>
        </div>
      </td>
      <td>
        <div class="container">
          <div class="cube pers350">
            <div class="face front">1</div>
            <div class="face back">2</div>
            <div class="face right">3</div>
            <div class="face left">4</div>
            <div class="face top">5</div>
            <div class="face bottom">6</div>
          </div>
        </div>
      </td>
      <td>
        <div class="container">
          <div class="cube pers500">
            <div class="face front">1</div>
            <div class="face back">2</div>
            <div class="face right">3</div>
            <div class="face left">4</div>
            <div class="face top">5</div>
            <div class="face bottom">6</div>
          </div>
        </div>
      </td>
    </tr>
  </tbody>
</table>

CSS content

/* Shorthand classes for different perspective values */
.pers250 {
  perspective: 250px;
}

.pers350 {
  perspective: 350px;
}

.pers500 {
  perspective: 500px;
}

/* Define the container div, the cube div, and a generic face */
 .container {
  width: 200px;
  height: 200px;
  margin: 75px 0 0 75px;
  border: none;
}

.cube {
  width: 100%;
  height: 100%;
  backface-visibility: visible;
  perspective-origin: 150% 150%;
  transform-style: preserve-3d;
}

.face {
  display: block;
  position: absolute;
  width: 100px;
  height: 100px;
  border: none;
  line-height: 100px;
  font-family: sans-serif;
  font-size: 60px;
  color: white;
  text-align: center;
}

/* Define each face based on direction */
.front {
  background: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.3);
  transform: translateZ(50px);
}

.back {
  background: rgba(0, 255, 0, 1);
  color: black;
  transform: rotateY(180deg) translateZ(50px);
}

.right {
  background: rgba(196, 0, 0, 0.7);
  transform: rotateY(90deg) translateZ(50px);
}

.left {
  background: rgba(0, 0, 196, 0.7);
  transform: rotateY(-90deg) translateZ(50px);
}

.top {
  background: rgba(196, 196, 0, 0.7);
  transform: rotateX(90deg) translateZ(50px);
}

.bottom {
  background: rgba(196, 0, 196, 0.7);
  transform: rotateX(-90deg) translateZ(50px);
}

/* Make the table a little nicer */
th, p, td {
  background-color: #EEEEEE;
  padding: 10px;
  font-family: sans-serif;
  text-align: left;
}

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Transforms Level 2
The definition of 'perspective' in that specification.
Editor's Draft Initial definition

Browser compatibility

 

FeatureChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafari
Basic support

45

12 -webkit-

Yes

Yes -webkit-

16

10 -moz-

49 -webkit-

45 -webkit- 1

1015 -webkit- Yes -webkit-
FeatureAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge mobileFirefox for AndroidIE mobileOpera AndroidiOS Safari
Basic support3 -webkit- ?

Yes

Yes -webkit-

16

10 -moz-

49 -webkit-

45 -webkit- 1

8.1 Yes -webkit- Yes -webkit-

1. From version 45: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.

 

See also