repeat()

The repeat() CSS function represents a repeated fragment of the track list, allowing a large number of columns or rows that exhibit a recurring pattern to be written in a more compact form.

This function can be used in the CSS Grid properties grid-template-columns and grid-template-rows.

/* <track-repeat> values */
repeat(4, 1fr)
repeat(4, [col-start] 250px [col-end])
repeat(4, [col-start] 60% [col-end])
repeat(4, [col-start] 1fr [col-end])
repeat(4, [col-start] min-content [col-end])
repeat(4, [col-start] max-content [col-end])
repeat(4, [col-start] auto [col-end])
repeat(4, [col-start] minmax(100px, 1fr) [col-end])
repeat(4, [col-start] fit-content(200px) [col-end])
repeat(4, 10px [col-start] 30% [col-middle] auto [col-end])
repeat(4, [col-start] min-content [col-middle] max-content [col-end])

/* <auto-repeat> values */
repeat(auto-fill, 250px)
repeat(auto-fit, 250px)
repeat(auto-fill, [col-start] 250px [col-end])
repeat(auto-fit, [col-start] 250px [col-end])
repeat(auto-fill, [col-start] minmax(100px, 1fr) [col-end])
repeat(auto-fill, 10px [col-start] 30% [col-middle] 400px [col-end])

/* <fixed-repeat> values */
repeat(4, 250px)
repeat(4, [col-start] 250px [col-end])
repeat(4, [col-start] 60% [col-end])
repeat(4, [col-start] minmax(100px, 1fr) [col-end])
repeat(4, [col-start] fit-content(200px) [col-end])
repeat(4, 10px [col-start] 30% [col-middle] 400px [col-end])

Syntax

Values

<length>
A positive integer length.
<percentage>
A non-negative percentage relative to the inline size of the grid container in column grid tracks, and the block size of the grid container in row grid tracks. If the size of the grid container depends on the size of its tracks, then the <percentage> must be treated as auto. The user-agent may adjust the intrinsic size contributions of the track to the size of the grid container and increase the final size of the track by the minimum amount that would result in honoring the percentage.
<flex>
A non-negative dimension with the unit fr specifying the track’s flex factor. Each <flex>-sized track takes a share of the remaining space in proportion to its flex factor.
max-content
Represents the largest max-content contribution of the grid items occupying the grid track.
min-content
Represents the largest min-content contribution of the grid items occupying the grid track.
auto
As a maximum, identical to max-content. As a minimum it represents the largest minimum size (as specified by min-width/min-height) of the grid items occupying the grid track.
auto-fill
If the grid container has a definite or maximal size in the relevant axis, then the number of repetitions is the largest possible positive integer that does not cause the grid to overflow its grid container. Treating each track as its maximal track sizing function (each independant value used to define grid-template-rows or grid-template-columns), if that is definite. Otherwise, as its minimum track sizing function, and taking grid-gap into account. If any number of repetitions would overflow, then the repetition is 1. Otherwise, if the grid container has a definite minimal size in the relevant axis, the number of repetitions is the smallest possible positive integer that fulfills that minimum requirement. Otherwise, the specified track list repeats only once.
auto-fit

Behaves the same as auto-fill, except that after placing the grid items any empty repeated tracks are collapsed. An empty track is one with no in-flow grid items placed into or spanning across it. (This can result in all tracks being collapsed, if they’re all empty.)

A collapsed track is treated as having a single fixed track sizing function of 0px, and the gutters on either side of it collapse.

For the purpose of finding the number of auto-repeated tracks, the user agent floors the track size to a user agent specified value (e.g., 1px), to avoid division by zero.

Example

CSS

#container {
  display: grid;
  grid-template-columns: repeat(2, 50px 1fr) 100px;
  grid-gap: 5px;
  box-sizing: border-box;
  height: 200px;
  width: 100%;
  background-color: #8cffa0;
  padding: 10px;
}

#container > div {
  background-color: #8ca0ff;
  padding: 5px;
}

HTML

<div id="container">
  <div>
    This item is 50 pixels wide.
  </div>
  <div>
    Item with flexible width.
  </div>
  <div>
    This item is 50 pixels wide.
  </div>
  <div>
    Item with flexible width.
  </div>
  <div>
    Inflexible item of 100 pixels width.
  </div>
</div>

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Grid Layout
The definition of 'repeat()' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Initial definition

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
repeat()Chrome Full support 57
Full support 57
Full support 38
Disabled
Disabled From version 38: this feature is behind the Enable experimental Web Platform features preference. To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge Full support 16Firefox Partial support 57
Notes
Partial support 57
Notes
Notes repeat(auto-fill, ...) and repeat(auto-fit, ...) only support one repeated column (see bug 1341507).
No support 52 — 57
Notes
Notes calc() doesn't work in repeat() (see bug 1350069).
No support 40 — 59
Disabled
Disabled From version 40 until version 59 (exclusive): this feature is behind the layout.css.grid.enabled preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE No support NoOpera Full support 44
Full support 44
Full support Yes
Disabled
Disabled This feature is behind the Enable experimental Web Platform features preference.
Safari Full support 10.1WebView Android Full support 57Chrome Android Full support 57
Full support 57
Full support 38
Disabled
Disabled From version 38: this feature is behind the Enable experimental Web Platform features preference. To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Firefox Android Full support 52
Full support 52
No support 40 — 59
Disabled
Disabled From version 40 until version 59 (exclusive): this feature is behind the layout.css.grid.enabled preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Opera Android Full support 43
Full support 43
Full support Yes
Disabled
Disabled This feature is behind the Enable experimental Web Platform features preference.
Safari iOS Full support 10.3Samsung Internet Android ?

Legend

Full support  
Full support
Partial support  
Partial support
No support  
No support
Compatibility unknown  
Compatibility unknown
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.
User must explicitly enable this feature.
User must explicitly enable this feature.