The orphans CSS property specifies the minimum number of lines in a block container that must be shown at the bottom of a page, region, or column. This property is normally used to control how breaks occur.

/* <integer> values */
orphans: 2;
orphans: 3;

/* Global values */
orphans: inherit;
orphans: initial;
orphans: unset;

In typography, an orphan is the first line of a paragraph that appears alone at the bottom of a page. (The paragraph continues on a following page.)

Initial value2
Applies toblock container elements
Inheritedyes
Mediavisual
Computed valueas specified
Animation typediscrete
Canonical orderper grammar

Syntax

Values

<integer>
The minimum number of lines that can stay by themselves at the bottom of a fragment before a fragmentation break. The value must be positive.

Formal syntax

<integer>

Example

HTML

<div>
  <p>This is the first paragraph containing some text.</p>
  <p>This is the second paragraph containing some more text than the first one. It is used to demonstrate how widows work.</p>
  <p>This is the third paragraph. It has a little bit more text than the first one.</p>
</div>

CSS

div {
  background-color: #8cffa0;
  height: 150px;
  columns: 3;
  orphans: 3;
}

p {
  background-color: #8ca0ff;
}

p:first-child {
  margin-top: 0;
}

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Fragmentation Module Level 3
The definition of 'orphans' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Extends orphans to apply to any type of fragment, including pages, regions, or columns.
CSS Multi-column Layout Module
The definition of 'orphans' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Recommendations to consider orphans in relation to columns.
CSS Level 2 (Revision 1)
The definition of 'orphans' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

FeatureChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafari
Basic support25 Yes No89.2 No
FeatureAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge mobileFirefox for AndroidOpera AndroidiOS SafariSamsung Internet
Basic support25 ? Yes No ? No ?

See also

Document Tags and Contributors

 Last updated by: mfluehr,