<color>

The <color> CSS data type represents a color. A <color> may also include an alpha-channel transparency value, indicating how the color should composite with its background.

A <color> can be defined in any of the following ways:

Note: This article describes the <color> data type in detail. To learn more about using color in HTML, see Applying color to HTML elements using CSS.

Syntax

The <color> data type is specified using one of the options listed below.

Note: Although <color> values are precisely defined, their actual appearance may vary (sometimes significantly) from device to device. This is because most devices are not calibrated, and some browsers do not support output devices' color profiles.

Color keywords

Color keywords are case-insensitive identifiers that represent a specific color, such as red, blue, black, or lightseagreen. Although the names more or less describes their respective colors, they are essentially artificial, without a strict rationale behind the names used.

There are a few caveats to consider when using color keywords:

  • HTML only recognizes the 16 basic color keywords found in CSS1, using a specific algorithm to convert unrecognized values (often to completely different colors). The other color keywords should only be used in CSS and SVG.
  • Unlike HTML, CSS will completely ignore unknown keywords.
  • The color keywords all represent plain, solid colors, without transparency.
  • Several keywords are aliases for each other:
    • aqua / cyan
    • fuchsia / magenta
    • darkgray / darkgrey
    • darkslategray / darkslategrey
    • dimgray / dimgrey
    • lightgray / lightgrey
    • lightslategray / lightslategrey
    • gray / grey
    • slategray / slategrey
  • Though many keywords have been adapted from X11, their RGB values may differ from the corresponding color on X11 systems since manufacturers sometimes tailor X11 colors to their specific hardware.

Note: The list of accepted keywords has undergone many changes during the evolution of CSS:

  • CSS Level 1 only included 16 basic colors, called the VGA colors as they were taken from the set of displayable colors on VGA graphics cards.
  • CSS Level 2 added the orange keyword.
  • Although various colors not in the specification (mostly adapted from the X11 colors list) were supported by early browsers, it wasn't until SVG 1.0 and CSS Colors Level 3 that they were formally defined. They are called the extended color keywords, the X11 colors, or the SVG colors.
  • CSS Colors Level 4 added the rebeccapurple keyword to honor web pioneer Eric Meyer.
Specification Keyword RGB hex value Live keyword
CSS Level 1 black #000000
silver #c0c0c0
gray #808080
white #ffffff
maroon #800000
red #ff0000
purple #800080
fuchsia #ff00ff
green #008000
lime #00ff00
olive #808000
yellow #ffff00
navy #000080
blue #0000ff
teal #008080
aqua #00ffff
CSS Level 2 (Revision 1) orange #ffa500
CSS Color Module Level 3 aliceblue #f0f8ff
antiquewhite #faebd7
aquamarine #7fffd4
azure #f0ffff
beige #f5f5dc
bisque #ffe4c4
blanchedalmond #ffebcd
blueviolet #8a2be2
brown #a52a2a
burlywood #deb887
cadetblue #5f9ea0
chartreuse #7fff00
chocolate #d2691e
coral #ff7f50
cornflowerblue #6495ed
cornsilk #fff8dc
crimson #dc143c
cyan
(synonym of aqua)
#00ffff
darkblue #00008b
darkcyan #008b8b
darkgoldenrod #b8860b
darkgray #a9a9a9
darkgreen #006400
darkgrey #a9a9a9
darkkhaki #bdb76b
darkmagenta #8b008b
darkolivegreen #556b2f
darkorange #ff8c00
darkorchid #9932cc
darkred #8b0000
darksalmon #e9967a
darkseagreen #8fbc8f
darkslateblue #483d8b
darkslategray #2f4f4f
darkslategrey #2f4f4f
darkturquoise #00ced1
darkviolet #9400d3
deeppink #ff1493
deepskyblue #00bfff
dimgray #696969
dimgrey #696969
dodgerblue #1e90ff
firebrick #b22222
floralwhite #fffaf0
forestgreen #228b22
gainsboro #dcdcdc
ghostwhite #f8f8ff
gold #ffd700
goldenrod #daa520
greenyellow #adff2f
grey #808080
honeydew #f0fff0
hotpink #ff69b4
indianred #cd5c5c
indigo #4b0082
ivory #fffff0
khaki #f0e68c
lavender #e6e6fa
lavenderblush #fff0f5
lawngreen #7cfc00
lemonchiffon #fffacd
lightblue #add8e6
lightcoral #f08080
lightcyan #e0ffff
lightgoldenrodyellow #fafad2
lightgray #d3d3d3
lightgreen #90ee90
lightgrey #d3d3d3
lightpink #ffb6c1
lightsalmon #ffa07a
lightseagreen #20b2aa
lightskyblue #87cefa
lightslategray #778899
lightslategrey #778899
lightsteelblue #b0c4de
lightyellow #ffffe0
limegreen #32cd32
linen #faf0e6
magenta
(synonym of fuchsia)
#ff00ff
mediumaquamarine #66cdaa
mediumblue #0000cd
mediumorchid #ba55d3
mediumpurple #9370db
mediumseagreen #3cb371
mediumslateblue #7b68ee
mediumspringgreen #00fa9a
mediumturquoise #48d1cc
mediumvioletred #c71585
midnightblue #191970
mintcream #f5fffa
mistyrose #ffe4e1
moccasin #ffe4b5
navajowhite #ffdead
oldlace #fdf5e6
olivedrab #6b8e23
orangered #ff4500
orchid #da70d6
palegoldenrod #eee8aa
palegreen #98fb98
paleturquoise #afeeee
palevioletred #db7093
papayawhip #ffefd5
peachpuff #ffdab9
peru #cd853f
pink #ffc0cb
plum #dda0dd
powderblue #b0e0e6
rosybrown #bc8f8f
royalblue #4169e1
saddlebrown #8b4513
salmon #fa8072
sandybrown #f4a460
seagreen #2e8b57
seashell #fff5ee
sienna #a0522d
skyblue #87ceeb
slateblue #6a5acd
slategray #708090
slategrey #708090
snow #fffafa
springgreen #00ff7f
steelblue #4682b4
tan #d2b48c
thistle #d8bfd8
tomato #ff6347
turquoise #40e0d0
violet #ee82ee
wheat #f5deb3
whitesmoke #f5f5f5
yellowgreen #9acd32
CSS Color Module Level 4 rebeccapurple #663399

transparent keyword

The transparent keyword represents a fully transparent color. This makes the background behind the colored item completely visible. Technically, transparent is a shortcut for rgba(0,0,0,0).

Note: To prevent unexpected behavior, such as in a <gradient>, the current CSS spec states that transparent should be calculated in the alpha-premultiplied color space. However, be aware that older browsers may treat it as black with an alpha value of 0.

Note: transparent wasn't a true color in CSS Level 2 (Revision 1). It was a special keyword that could be used instead of a regular <color> value on two CSS properties: background and border. It was essentially added to allow developers to override an inherited solid color. With the advent of alpha channels in CSS Colors Level 3, transparent was redefined as a true color. It can now be used wherever a <color> value can be used.

currentColor keyword

The currentColor keyword represents the value of an element's color property. This lets you use the color value on properties that do not receive it by default.

If currentColor is used as the value of the color property, it instead takes its value from the inherited value of the color property.

currentColor example

<div style="color:blue; border: 1px dashed currentColor;">
  The color of this text is blue.
  <div style="background:currentColor; height:9px;"></div>
  This block is surrounded by a blue border.
</div>

RGB colors

The RGB color model defines a given color in the sRGB color space according to its red, green, and blue components. An optional alpha component represents the color's transparency.

Syntax

RGB colors can be expressed through both hexadecimal (prefixed with #) and functional (rgb(), rgba()) notations.

Note: As of CSS Colors Level 4, rgba() is an alias for rgb(). In browsers that implement the Level 4 standard, they accept the same parameters and behave the same way.

Hexadecimal notation: #RRGGBB[AA]

R (red), G (green), B (blue), and A (alpha) are hexadecimal characters (0–9, A–F). A is optional. For example, #ff0000 is equivalent to #ff0000ff.

Hexadecimal notation: #RGB[A]

R (red), G (green), B (blue), and A (alpha) are hexadecimal characters (0–9, A–F). A is optional. The three-digit notation (#RGB) is a shorter version of the six-digit form (#RRGGBB). For example, #f09 is the same color as #ff0099. Likewise, the four-digit RGB notation (#RGBA) is a shorter version of the eight-digit form (#RRGGBBAA). For example, #0f38 is the same color as #00ff3388.

Functional notation: rgb[a](R, G, B[, A])

R (red), G (green), and B (blue) can be either <number>s or <percentage>s, where the number 255 corresponds to 100%. A (alpha) can be a <number> between 0 and 1, or a <percentage>, where the number 1 corresponds to 100% (full opacity).

Functional notation: rgb[a](R G B[ / A])

CSS Colors Level 4 adds support for space-separated values in the functional notation.

HSL colors

The HSL color model defines a given color in the sRGB color space according to its hue, saturation, and lightness components. An optional alpha component represents the color's transparency.

Many designers find HSL more intuitive than RGB, since it allows hue, saturation, and lightness to each be adjusted independently. HSL can also make it easier to create a set of matching colors (such as when you want multiple shades of a single hue). However, using HSL to create color variations can produce surprising results, as it is not perceptually uniform. For example, both hsl(240 100% 50%) and hsl(60 100% 50%) have the same lightness, even though the former is much darker than the latter.

Syntax

HSL colors are expressed through the functional hsl() and hsla() notations.

Note: As of CSS Colors Level 4, hsla() is an alias for hsl(). In browsers that implement the Level 4 standard, they accept the same parameters and behave the same way.

Functional notation: hsl[a](H, S, L[, A])

H (hue) is an <angle> of the color circle given in degs, rads, grads, or turns in CSS Color Module Level 4. When written as a unitless <number>, it is interpreted as degrees, as specified in CSS Color Module Level 3. By definition, red=0deg=360deg, with the other colors spread around the circle, so green=120deg, blue=240deg, etc. As an <angle>, it implicitly wraps around such that -120deg=240deg, 480deg=120deg, -1turn=1turn, etc.

S (saturation) and L (lightness) are percentages. 100% saturation is completely saturated, while 0% is completely unsaturated (gray). 100% lightness is white, 0% lightness is black, and 50% lightness is “normal.”

A (alpha) can be a <number> between 0 and 1, or a <percentage>, where the number 1 corresponds to 100% (full opacity).

Functional notation: hsl[a](H S L[ / A])

CSS Colors Level 4 adds support for space-separated values in the functional notation.

System Colors

In forced colors mode (detectable with the forced-colors media query), most colors are restricted into a user- and browser-defined palette. These system colors are exposed by the following keywords, which can be used to ensure that the rest of the page integrates well with the restricted palette. These values may also be used in other contexts, but are not widely supported by browsers.

The keywords in the following list are defined by the CSS Color Module Level 4 specification.

Note: Note that these keywords are case insensitive, but are listed here with mixed case for readability.

ActiveText

Text of active links

ButtonBorder

Base border color of controls

ButtonFace

Background color of controls

ButtonText

Foreground color of controls

Canvas

Background of application content or documents

CanvasText

Foreground color in application content or documents

Field

Background of input fields

FieldText

Text in input fields

GrayText

Foreground color for disabled items (e.g. a disabled control)

Highlight

Background of selected items

HighlightText

Foreground color of selected items

LinkText

Text of non-active, non-visited links

Mark

Background of text that has been specially marked (such as by the HTML mark element)

MarkText

Text that has been specially marked (such as by the HTML mark element)

VisitedText

Text of visited links

Deprecated system color keywords

The following keywords were defined in earlier versions of the CSS Color Module. They are now deprecated. for use on public web pages.

ActiveBorder

Active window border.

ActiveCaption

Active window caption. Should be used with CaptionText as foreground color.

AppWorkspace

Background color of multiple document interface.

Background

Desktop background.

ButtonHighlight

The color of the border facing the light source for 3-D elements that appear 3-D due to that layer of surrounding border.

ButtonShadow

The color of the border away from the light source for 3-D elements that appear 3-D due to that layer of surrounding border.

CaptionText

Text in caption, size box, and scrollbar arrow box. Should be used with the ActiveCaption background color.

InactiveBorder

Inactive window border.

InactiveCaption

Inactive window caption. Should be used with the InactiveCaptionText foreground color.

InactiveCaptionText

Color of text in an inactive caption. Should be used with the InactiveCaption background color.

InfoBackground

Background color for tooltip controls. Should be used with the InfoText foreground color.

InfoText

Text color for tooltip controls. Should be used with the InfoBackground background color.

Menu

Menu background. Should be used with the MenuText or -moz-MenuBarText foreground color.

MenuText

Text in menus. Should be used with the Menu background color.

Scrollbar

Background color of scroll bars.

ThreeDDarkShadow

The color of the darker (generally outer) of the two borders away from the light source for 3-D elements that appear 3-D due to two concentric layers of surrounding border.

ThreeDFace

The face background color for 3-D elements that appear 3-D due to two concentric layers of surrounding border. Should be used with the ButtonText foreground color.

ThreeDHighlight

The color of the lighter (generally outer) of the two borders facing the light source for 3-D elements that appear 3-D due to two concentric layers of surrounding border.

ThreeDLightShadow

The color of the darker (generally inner) of the two borders facing the light source for 3-D elements that appear 3-D due to two concentric layers of surrounding border.

ThreeDShadow

The color of the lighter (generally inner) of the two borders away from the light source for 3-D elements that appear 3-D due to two concentric layers of surrounding border.

Window

Window background. Should be used with the WindowText foreground color.

WindowFrame

Window frame.

WindowText

Text in windows. Should be used with the Window background color.

Mozilla System Color Extensions

-moz-ButtonDefault

The border color that goes around buttons that represent the default action for a dialog box.

-moz-ButtonHoverFace

The background color of a button that the mouse pointer is over (which would be ThreeDFace or ButtonFace when the mouse pointer is not over it). Should be used with the -moz-ButtonHoverText foreground color.

-moz-ButtonHoverText

The text color of a button that the mouse pointer is over (which would be ButtonText when the mouse pointer is not over it). Should be used with the -moz-ButtonHoverFace background color.

-moz-CellHighlight

Background color for selected item in a tree widget. Should be used with the -moz-CellHighlightText foreground color. See also -moz-html-CellHighlight.

-moz-CellHighlightText

Text color for a selected item in a tree. Should be used with the -moz-CellHighlight background color. See also -moz-html-CellHighlightText.

-moz-Combobox

Background color for combo-boxes. Should be used with the -moz-ComboboxText foreground color. In versions prior to 1.9.2, use -moz-Field instead.

-moz-ComboboxText

Text color for combo-boxes. Should be used with the -moz-Combobox background color. In versions prior to 1.9.2, use -moz-FieldText instead.

-moz-Dialog

Background color for dialog boxes. Should be used with the -moz-DialogText foreground color.

-moz-DialogText

Text color for dialog boxes. Should be used with the -moz-Dialog background color.

-moz-dragtargetzone, -moz-EvenTreeRow

Background color for even-numbered rows in a tree. Should be used with the -moz-FieldText foreground color. In Gecko versions prior to 1.9, use -moz-Field. See also -moz-OddTreeRow.

-moz-html-CellHighlight

Background color for highlighted item in HTML <select>s. Should be used with the -moz-html-CellHighlightText foreground color. Prior to Gecko 1.9, use -moz-CellHighlight.

-moz-html-CellHighlightText

Text color for highlighted items in HTML <select>s. Should be used with the -moz-html-CellHighlight background color. Prior to Gecko 1.9, use -moz-CellHighlightText.

-moz-mac-accentdarkestshadow, -moz-mac-accentdarkshadow, -moz-mac-accentface, -moz-mac-accentlightesthighlight, -moz-mac-accentlightshadow, -moz-mac-accentregularhighlight, -moz-mac-accentregularshadow

Accent colors.

-moz-mac-chrome-active, -moz-mac-chrome-inactive

Colors for inactive and active browser chrome.

-moz-mac-focusring, -moz-mac-menuselect, -moz-mac-menushadow, -moz-mac-menutextselect, -moz-MenuHover

Background color for hovered menu items. Often similar to Highlight. Should be used with the -moz-MenuHoverText or -moz-MenuBarHoverText foreground color.

-moz-MenuHoverText

Text color for hovered menu items. Often similar to HighlightText. Should be used with the -moz-MenuHover background color.

-moz-MenuBarText

Text color in menu bars. Often similar to MenuText. Should be used on top of Menu background.

-moz-MenuBarHoverText

Color for hovered text in menu bars. Often similar to -moz-MenuHoverText. Should be used on top of -moz-MenuHover background.

-moz-nativehyperlinktext

Default platform hyperlink color.

-moz-OddTreeRow

Background color for odd-numbered rows in a tree. Should be used with the -moz-FieldText foreground color. In Gecko versions prior to 1.9, use -moz-Field. See also -moz-EvenTreeRow.

-moz-win-communicationstext

Should be used for text in objects with appearance: -moz-win-communications-toolbox;.

-moz-win-mediatext

Should be used for text in objects with appearance: -moz-win-media-toolbox.

-moz-win-accentcolor

Used to access the Windows 10 custom accent color that you can set on the start menu, taskbar, title bars, etc.

-moz-win-accentcolortext

Used to access the color of text placed over the Windows 10 custom accent color in the start menu, taskbar, title bars, etc.

Mozilla Color Preference Extensions

-moz-activehyperlinktext

User's preference for text color of active links. Should be used with the default document background color.

-moz-default-background-color

User's preference for the document background color.

-moz-default-color

User's preference for the text color.

-moz-hyperlinktext

User's preference for the text color of unvisited links. Should be used with the default document background color.

-moz-visitedhyperlinktext

User's preference for the text color of visited links. Should be used with the default document background color.

Lab colors

CSS Color 4 introduced Lab colors. Lab colors are specified via the lab() functional notation. They are not limited to a specific color space, and can represent the entire spectrum of human vision.

LCH colors

CSS Color 4 introduced LCH colors. LCH colors are specified via the lch() functional notation. They are not limited to a specific color space, and can represent the entire spectrum of human vision.

In fact, LCH is the polar form of Lab. It is more human friendly than Lab, as its chroma and hue components specify qualities of the desired color, as opposed to mixing. It is similar to HSL in that way, although it is far more perceptually uniform. Unlike HSL that describes both hsl(60 100% 50%) hsl(240 100% 50%) as having the same lightness, LCH (and Lab) correctly ascribes different lightnesses to them: the former (yellow) has an L of 97.6 and the latter (blue) an L of 29.6. Therefore, LCH can be used to create palettes across entirely different colors, with predictable results. Please note that LCH hue is not the same as HSL hue and LCH chroma is not the same as HSL saturation, although they do share some conceptual similarities.

color() colors

CSS Color 4 introduced this notation. Colors specified via the color() function can specify a color in any of the predefined color spaces, as well as custom color spaces, defined via the @color-profile rule.

Interpolation

In animations and gradients, <color> values are interpolated on each of their red, green, and blue components. Each component is interpolated as a real, floating-point number. Note that interpolation of colors happens in the alpha-premultiplied sRGBA color space to prevent unexpected gray colors from appearing. In animations, the interpolation's speed is determined by the timing function.

Accessibility considerations

Some people have difficulty distinguishing colors. The WCAG 2.0 recommendation strongly advises against using color as the only means of conveying a specific message, action, or result. See Color and color contrast for more information.

Examples

Color value tester

In this example we provide a <div> and a text input. Entering a valid color into the input causes the <div> to adopt that color, allowing you to test our color values.

HTML

<div></div>
<hr>
<label for="color">Enter a valid color value:</label>
<input type="text" id="color">

CSS

div {
  width: 100%;
  height: 200px;
}

Result

RGB syntax variations

This example shows the many ways in which a single color can be created with the various RGB color syntaxes.

/* These syntax variations all specify the same color: a fully opaque hot pink. */

/* Hexadecimal syntax */
#f09
#F09
#ff0099
#FF0099

/* Functional syntax */
rgb(255,0,153)
rgb(255, 0, 153)
rgb(255, 0, 153.0)
rgb(100%,0%,60%)
rgb(100%, 0%, 60%)
rgb(100%, 0, 60%) /* ERROR! Don't mix numbers and percentages. */
rgb(255 0 153)

/* Hexadecimal syntax with alpha value */
#f09f
#F09F
#ff0099ff
#FF0099FF

/* Functional syntax with alpha value */
rgb(255, 0, 153, 1)
rgb(255, 0, 153, 100%)

/* Whitespace syntax */
rgb(255 0 153 / 1)
rgb(255 0 153 / 100%)

/* Functional syntax with floats value */
rgb(255, 0, 153.6, 1)
rgb(2.55e2, 0e0, 1.53e2, 1e2%)

RGB transparency variations

/* Hexadecimal syntax */
#3a30                    /*   0% opaque green */
#3A3F                    /* full opaque green */
#33aa3300                /*   0% opaque green */
#33AA3380                /*  50% opaque green */

/* Functional syntax */
rgba(51, 170, 51, .1)    /*  10% opaque green */
rgba(51, 170, 51, .4)    /*  40% opaque green */
rgba(51, 170, 51, .7)    /*  70% opaque green */
rgba(51, 170, 51,  1)    /* full opaque green */

/* Whitespace syntax */
rgba(51 170 51 / 0.4)    /*  40% opaque green */
rgba(51 170 51 / 40%)    /*  40% opaque green */

/* Functional syntax with floats value */
rgba(51, 170, 51.6, 1)
rgba(5.1e1, 1.7e2, 5.1e1, 1e2%)

HSL syntax variations

/* These examples all specify the same color: a lavender. */
hsl(270,60%,70%)
hsl(270, 60%, 70%)
hsl(270 60% 70%)
hsl(270deg, 60%, 70%)
hsl(4.71239rad, 60%, 70%)
hsl(.75turn, 60%, 70%)

/* These examples all specify the same color: a lavender that is 15% opaque. */
hsl(270, 60%, 50%, .15)
hsl(270, 60%, 50%, 15%)
hsl(270 60% 50% / .15)
hsl(270 60% 50% / 15%)

Fully saturated colors

Notation Description Live
hsl(0, 100%, 50%) red
hsl(30, 100%, 50%) orange
hsl(60, 100%, 50%) yellow
hsl(90, 100%, 50%) lime green
hsl(120, 100%, 50%) green
hsl(150, 100%, 50%) blue-green
hsl(180, 100%, 50%) cyan
hsl(210, 100%, 50%) sky blue
hsl(240, 100%, 50%) blue
hsl(270, 100%, 50%) purple
hsl(300, 100%, 50%) magenta
hsl(330, 100%, 50%) pink
hsl(360, 100%, 50%) red

Lighter and darker greens

Notation Description Live
hsl(120, 100%, 0%) black
hsl(120, 100%, 20%)
hsl(120, 100%, 40%)
hsl(120, 100%, 60%)
hsl(120, 100%, 80%)
hsl(120, 100%, 100%) white

Saturated and desaturated greens

Notation Description Live
hsl(120, 100%, 50%) green
hsl(120, 80%, 50%)
hsl(120, 60%, 50%)
hsl(120, 40%, 50%)
hsl(120, 20%, 50%)
hsl(120, 0%, 50%) gray

HSL transparency variations

hsla(240, 100%, 50%, .05)     /*   5% opaque blue */
hsla(240, 100%, 50%, .4)      /*  40% opaque blue */
hsla(240, 100%, 50%, .7)      /*  70% opaque blue */
hsla(240, 100%, 50%, 1)       /* full opaque blue */

/* Whitespace syntax */
hsla(240 100% 50% / .05)      /*   5% opaque blue */

/* Percentage value for alpha */
hsla(240 100% 50% / 5%)       /*   5% opaque blue */

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Color Module Level 4 Working Draft Adds LCH and Lab colors, the color() functional notation, rebeccapurple, four- (#RGBA) and eight-digit (#RRGGBBAA) hexadecimal notations, rgba() and hsla() as aliases of rgb() and hsl() (both with identical parameter syntax), space-separated function parameters as an alternative to commas, percentages for alpha values, and angles for the hue component in hsl() colors.
CSS Color Module Level 3
The definition of '<color>' in that specification.
Recommendation Deprecates system colors. Adds SVG colors and rgba(), hsl(), and hsla() functional notations.
CSS Level 2 (Revision 1)
The definition of '<color>' in that specification.
Recommendation Adds the orange keyword and system colors.
CSS Level 1
The definition of '<color>' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition. Includes 16 basic color keywords.

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also