<color>

The <color> CSS data type represents a color. A <color> may also include an alpha-channel transparency value, indicating how the color should composite with its background.

Note: Although <color> values are precisely defined, their actual appearance may vary (sometimes significantly) from device to device. This is because most devices are not calibrated, and some browsers do not support output devices' color profiles.

Syntax

css
/* Named colors */
rebeccapurple
aliceblue

/* RGB Hexadecimal */
#f09
#ff0099

/* RGB (Red, Green, Blue) */
rgb(255 0 153)
rgb(255 0 153 / 80%)

/* HSL (Hue, Saturation, Lightness) */
hsl(150 30% 60%)
hsl(150 30% 60% / 80%)

/* HWB (Hue, Whiteness, Blackness) */
hwb(12 50% 0%)
hwb(194 0% 0% / 0.5)

/* LAB (Lightness, A-axis, B-axis) */
lab(50% 40 59.5)
lab(50% 40 59.5 / 0.5)

/* LCH (Lightness, Chroma, Hue) */
lch(52.2% 72.2 50)
lch(52.2% 72.2 50 / 0.5)

/* Oklab (Lightness, A-axis, B-axis) */
oklab(59% 0.1 0.1)
oklab(59% 0.1 0.1 / 0.5)

/* Oklch (Lightness, Chroma, Hue) */
oklch(60% 0.15 50)
oklch(60% 0.15 50 / 0.5)

/* light-dark */
light-dark(white, black)
light-dark(rgb(255 255 255), rgb(0 0 0))

A <color> value can be specified using one of the methods listed below:

currentcolor keyword

The currentcolor keyword represents the value of an element's color property. This lets you use the color value on properties that do not receive it by default.

If currentcolor is used as the value of the color property, it instead takes its value from the inherited value of the color property.

html
<div style="color: blue; border: 1px dashed currentcolor;">
  The color of this text is blue.
  <div style="background: currentcolor; height:9px;"></div>
  This block is surrounded by a blue border.
</div>

Missing color components

Each component of any CSS color functions - except for those using the legacy comma-separated syntax - can be specified as the keyword none to be a missing component.

Explicitly specifying missing components is useful in color interpolation for cases where you would like to interpolate some color components but not others. For all other purposes, a missing component will effectively have a zero value in an appropriate unit: 0, 0%, or 0deg. For example, the following colors are equivalent when used outside of interpolation:

css
/* These are equivalent */
color: oklab(50% none -0.25);
color: oklab(50% 0 -0.25);

/* These are equivalent */
background-color: hsl(none 100% 50%);
background-color: hsl(0deg 100% 50%);

Interpolation

Color interpolation happens with gradients, transitions, and animations.

When interpolating <color> values, they are first converted to a given color space, and then each component of the computed values are interpolated linearly, with interpolation's speed being determined by the easing function in transitions and animations. The interpolation color space defaults to Oklab, but can be overridden through <color-interpolation-method> in some color-related functional notations.

Interpolation with missing components

Interpolating colors in the same space

When interpolating colors that are exactly in the interpolation color space, missing components from one color are replaced with existing values of the same components from the other color. For example, the following two expressions are equivalent:

css
color-mix(in oklch, oklch(none 0.2 10), oklch(60% none 30))
color-mix(in oklch, oklch(60% 0.2 10), oklch(60% 0.2 30))

Note: If a component is missing from both colors, this component will be missing after the interpolation.

Interpolating colors from different spaces: analogous components

If any color to be interpolated is not in the interpolation color space, its missing components are transferred into the converted color based on analogous components of the same category as described in the following table:

Category Analogous components
Reds R, X
Greens G, Y
Blues B, Z
Lightness L
Colorfulness C, S
Hue H
a a
b b

For example:

  • X (0.2) in color(xyz 0.2 0.1 0.6) is analogous to R (50%) in rgb(50% 70% 30%).
  • H (0deg) in hsl(0deg 100% 80%) is analogous to H (140) in oklch(80% 0.1 140).

Using Oklch as the interpolation color space and the two colors below as an example:

css
lch(80% 30 none)
color(display-p3 0.7 0.5 none)

the preprocessing procedure is:

  1. Replace the missing components in both colors with a zero value:
    css
    lch(80% 30 0)
    color(display-p3 0.7 0.5 0)
    
  2. Convert both colors into the interpolation color space:
    css
    oklch(83.915% 0.0902 0.28)
    oklch(63.612% 0.1522 78.748)
    
  3. If any component of the converted colors is analogous to a missing component in the corresponding original color, reset it as a missing component:
    css
    oklch(83.915% 0.0902 none)
    oklch(63.612% 0.1522 78.748)
    
  4. Replace any missing component with the same component from the other converted color:
    css
    oklch(83.915% 0.0902 78.748)
    oklch(63.612% 0.1522 78.748)
    

Accessibility concerns

Some people have difficulty distinguishing colors. The WCAG 2.2 recommendation strongly advises against using color as the only means of conveying a specific message, action, or result. See color and color contrast for more information.

Formal syntax

<color> = 
<color-base> |
currentColor |
<system-color>

<color-base> =
<hex-color> |
<color-function> |
<named-color> |
transparent

<color-function> =
<rgb()> |
<rgba()> |
<hsl()> |
<hsla()> |
<hwb()> |
<lab()> |
<lch()> |
<oklab()> |
<oklch()> |
<color()>

<rgb()> =
<legacy-rgb-syntax> |
<modern-rgb-syntax>

<rgba()> =
<legacy-rgba-syntax> |
<modern-rgba-syntax>

<hsl()> =
<legacy-hsl-syntax> |
<modern-hsl-syntax>

<hsla()> =
<legacy-hsla-syntax> |
<modern-hsla-syntax>

<hwb()> =
hwb( [ <hue> | none ] [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ / [ <alpha-value> | none ] ]? )

<lab()> =
lab( [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ / [ <alpha-value> | none ] ]? )

<lch()> =
lch( [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ <hue> | none ] [ / [ <alpha-value> | none ] ]? )

<oklab()> =
oklab( [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ / [ <alpha-value> | none ] ]? )

<oklch()> =
oklch( [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ <hue> | none ] [ / [ <alpha-value> | none ] ]? )

<color()> =
color( [ from <color> ]? <colorspace-params> [ / [ <alpha-value> | none ] ]? )

<legacy-rgb-syntax> =
rgb( <percentage>#{3} , <alpha-value>? ) |
rgb( <number>#{3} , <alpha-value>? )

<modern-rgb-syntax> =
rgb( [ <number> | <percentage> | none ]{3} [ / [ <alpha-value> | none ] ]? )

<legacy-rgba-syntax> =
rgba( <percentage>#{3} , <alpha-value>? ) |
rgba( <number>#{3} , <alpha-value>? )

<modern-rgba-syntax> =
rgba( [ <number> | <percentage> | none ]{3} [ / [ <alpha-value> | none ] ]? )

<legacy-hsl-syntax> =
hsl( <hue> , <percentage> , <percentage> , <alpha-value>? )

<modern-hsl-syntax> =
hsl( [ <hue> | none ] [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ / [ <alpha-value> | none ] ]? )

<legacy-hsla-syntax> =
hsla( <hue> , <percentage> , <percentage> , <alpha-value>? )

<modern-hsla-syntax> =
hsla( [ <hue> | none ] [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ <percentage> | <number> | none ] [ / [ <alpha-value> | none ] ]? )

<hue> =
<number> |
<angle>

<alpha-value> =
<number> |
<percentage>

<colorspace-params> =
<custom-params> |
<predefined-rgb-params> |
<predefined-polar-params> |
<predefined-rectangular-params> |
<xyz-params>

<custom-params> =
<dashed-ident> [ <number> | <percentage> | none ]+

<predefined-rgb-params> =
<predefined-rgb> [ <number> | <percentage> | none ]{3}

<predefined-polar-params> =
jzczhz [ <number> | <percentage> | none ]{2} [ <hue> | none ]

<predefined-rectangular-params> =
<predefined-rectangular> [ <number> | <percentage> | none ]{3}

<xyz-params> =
<xyz> [ <number> | <percentage> | none ]{3}

<predefined-rgb> =
srgb |
srgb-linear |
display-p3 |
a98-rgb |
prophoto-rgb |
rec2020 |
rec2100-pq |
rec2100-hlg |
rec2100-linear

<predefined-rectangular> =
jzazbz |
ictcp

<xyz> =
xyz |
xyz-d50 |
xyz-d65

Examples

Color value tester

In this example we provide a <div> and a text input. Entering a valid color into the input causes the <div> to adopt that color, allowing you to test our color values.

HTML

html
<div></div>
<hr />
<label for="color">Enter a valid color value:</label>
<input type="text" id="color" />

Result

Fully saturated sRGB colors

This example shows fully saturated sRGB colors in the sRGB color space.

HTML

html
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>

CSS

css
div:nth-child(1) {
  background-color: hsl(0 100% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(2) {
  background-color: hsl(30 100% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(3) {
  background-color: hsl(60 100% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(4) {
  background-color: hsl(90 100% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(5) {
  background-color: hsl(120 100% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(6) {
  background-color: hsl(150 100% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(7) {
  background-color: hsl(180 100% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(8) {
  background-color: hsl(210 100% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(9) {
  background-color: hsl(240 100% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(10) {
  background-color: hsl(270 100% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(11) {
  background-color: hsl(300 100% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(12) {
  background-color: hsl(330 100% 50%);
}

Result

Reds of different shades

This example shows reds of different shades in the sRGB color space.

HTML

html
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>

CSS

css
div:nth-child(1) {
  background-color: hsl(0 100% 0%);
}
div:nth-child(2) {
  background-color: hsl(0 100% 20%);
}
div:nth-child(3) {
  background-color: hsl(0 100% 40%);
}
div:nth-child(4) {
  background-color: hsl(0 100% 60%);
}
div:nth-child(5) {
  background-color: hsl(0 100% 80%);
}
div:nth-child(6) {
  background-color: hsl(0 100% 100%);
  border: solid;
}

Result

Reds of different saturations

This example shows reds of different saturations in the sRGB color space.

HTML

html
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>
<div></div>

CSS

css
div:nth-child(1) {
  background-color: hsl(0 0% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(2) {
  background-color: hsl(0 20% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(3) {
  background-color: hsl(0 40% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(4) {
  background-color: hsl(0 60% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(5) {
  background-color: hsl(0 80% 50%);
}
div:nth-child(6) {
  background-color: hsl(0 100% 50%);
}

Result

Specifications

Specification
CSS Color Module Level 4
# color-syntax

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also