The @media CSS at-rule can be used to apply part of a style sheet based on the result of one or more media queries.

Note: In JavaScript, @media can be accessed via the CSSMediaRule CSS object model interface.

Syntax

The @media at-rule may be placed at the top level of your code or nested inside any other conditional group at-rule.

/* At the top level of your code */
@media screen and (min-width: 900px) {
  article {
    padding: 1rem 3rem;
  }
}

/* Nested within another conditional at-rule */
@supports (display: flex) {
  @media screen and (min-width: 900px) {
    article {
      display: flex;
    }
  }
}

For a discussion of media query syntax, please see Using media queries.

Formal syntax

@media <media-query-list> {
  <group-rule-body>
}

where
<media-query-list> = <media-query>#

where
<media-query> = <media-condition> | [ not | only ]? <media-type> [ and <media-condition-without-or> ]?

where
<media-condition> = <media-not> | <media-and> | <media-or> | <media-in-parens>
<media-type> = <ident>
<media-condition-without-or> = <media-not> | <media-and> | <media-in-parens>

where
<media-not> = not <media-in-parens>
<media-and> = <media-in-parens> [ and <media-in-parens> ]+
<media-or> = <media-in-parens> [ or <media-in-parens> ]+
<media-in-parens> = ( <media-condition> ) | <media-feature> | <general-enclosed>

where
<media-feature> = ( [ <mf-plain> | <mf-boolean> | <mf-range> ] )
<general-enclosed> = [ <function-token> <any-value> ) ] | ( <ident> <any-value> )

where
<mf-plain> = <mf-name> : <mf-value>
<mf-boolean> = <mf-name>
<mf-range> = <mf-name> [ '<' | '>' ]? '='? <mf-value> | <mf-value> [ '<' | '>' ]? '='? <mf-name> | <mf-value> '<' '='? <mf-name> '<' '='? <mf-value> | <mf-value> '>' '='? <mf-name> '>' '='? <mf-value>

where
<mf-name> = <ident>
<mf-value> = <number> | <dimension> | <ident> | <ratio>

Media features

Media features describe specific characteristics of the user agent, output device, or environment. Media feature expressions test for their presence or value, and are entirely optional. Each media feature expression must be surrounded by parentheses.

Name Summary Notes
width Width of the viewport
height Height of the viewport
aspect-ratio Width-to-height aspect ratio of the viewport
orientation Orientation of the viewport
resolution Pixel density of the output device
scan Scanning process of the output device
grid Does the device use a grid or bitmap screen?
update How frequently the output device can modify the appearance of content Added in Media Queries Level 4.
overflow-block How does the output device handle content that overflows the viewport along the block axis? Added in Media Queries Level 4.
overflow-inline Can content that overflows the viewport along the inline axis be scrolled? Added in Media Queries Level 4.
color Number of bits per color component of the output device, or zero if the device isn't color
color-gamut Approximate range of colors that are supported by the user agent and output device Added in Media Queries Level 4.
color-index Number of entries in the output device's color lookup table, or zero if the device does not use such a table
display-mode The display mode of the application, as specified in the web app manifest's display member Defined in the Web App Manifest spec.
monochrome Bits per pixel in the output device's monochrome frame buffer, or zero if the device isn't monochrome
inverted-colors Is the user agent or underlying OS inverting colors? Added in Media Queries Level 5.
pointer Is the primary input mechanism a pointing device, and if so, how accurate is it? Added in Media Queries Level 4.
hover Does the primary input mechanism allow the user to hover over elements? Added in Media Queries Level 4.
any-pointer Is any available input mechanism a pointing device, and if so, how accurate is it? Added in Media Queries Level 4.
any-hover Does any available input mechanism allow the user to hover over elements? Added in Media Queries Level 4.
light-level Light level of the environment Added in Media Queries Level 5.
prefers-reduced-motion The user prefers less motion on the page Added in Media Queries Level 5.
prefers-reduced-transparency The user prefers reduced transparency Added in Media Queries Level 5.
prefers-contrast Detects if the user has requested the system increase or decrease the amount of contrast between adjacent colors Added in Media Queries Level 5.
prefers-color-scheme Detect if the user prefers a light or dark color scheme Added in Media Queries Level 5.
scripting Detects whether scripting (i.e. JavaScript) is available Added in Media Queries Level 5.
device-width Width of the rendering surface of the output device Deprecated in Media Queries Level 4.
device-height Height of the rendering surface of the output device Deprecated in Media Queries Level 4.
device-aspect-ratio Width-to-height aspect ratio of the output device Deprecated in Media Queries Level 4.

Examples

@media print {
  body { font-size: 10pt; }
}

@media screen {
  body { font-size: 13px; }
}

@media screen, print {
  body { line-height: 1.2; }
}

@media only screen 
  and (min-width: 320px) 
  and (max-width: 480px)
  and (resolution: 150dpi) {
    body { line-height: 1.4; }
}

Introduced in Media Queries Level 4 is a new range syntax that allows for less verbose media queries when testing for any feature accepting a range, as shown in the below examples:

@media (height > 600px) {
    body { line-height: 1.4; }
}

@media (400px <= width <= 700px) {
    body { line-height: 1.4; }
}

For more examples, please see Using media queries.

Accessibility concerns

To best accommodate people who adjust a site's text size, use ems when you need a <length> for your media queries.

Both em and px are valid units, but em works better if the user changes the browser text size.

Also consider using Level 4 media queries to improve the user's experience. For example, prefers-reduced-motion to detect if the user has requested that the system minimize the amount of animation or motion it uses.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
Media Queries Level 5
The definition of '@media' in that specification.
Editor's Draft Reinstates light-level, inverted-colors and Custom Media Queries, which were removed from Level 4.
Adds prefers-reduced-motion, prefers-reduced-transparency, prefers-contrast, and prefers-color-scheme media features.
CSS Conditional Rules Module Level 3
The definition of '@media' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Defines the basic syntax of the @media rule.
Media Queries Level 4
The definition of '@media' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation

Adds scripting, pointer, hoverupdate, overflow-block, and overflow-inline media features.
Deprecates all media types except for screen, print, speech, and all.
Makes the syntax more flexible by adding, among other things, the or keyword.

Media Queries
The definition of '@media' in that specification.
Recommendation No change.
CSS Level 2 (Revision 1)
The definition of '@media' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge MobileFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
Basic supportChrome Full support 1Edge Full support YesFirefox Full support 1IE Full support 6Opera Full support 9.2Safari Full support 1.3WebView Android Full support 1Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 9Safari iOS Full support 3.1Samsung Internet Android ?
speech media typeChrome No support NoEdge No support NoFirefox No support NoIE No support NoOpera Full support 9.2Safari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android ? Edge Mobile No support NoFirefox Android No support NoOpera Android Full support 9Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android No support No
Media feature expressionsChrome Full support 1Edge Full support YesFirefox Full support 1IE Full support 9Opera Full support 9.2Safari Full support 1.3WebView Android Full support 1Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 9Safari iOS Full support 3.1Samsung Internet Android ?
any-hover media featureChrome Full support 41Edge Full support 16Firefox Full support 64IE No support NoOpera Full support 28Safari Full support 9WebView Android Full support 41Chrome Android Full support 41Edge Mobile Full support 16Firefox Android Full support 64Opera Android Full support 28Safari iOS Full support 9.2Samsung Internet Android Full support 5.0
any-pointer media featureChrome Full support 41Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 64IE No support NoOpera Full support 28Safari Full support 9WebView Android Full support 41Chrome Android Full support 41Edge Mobile Full support 12Firefox Android Full support 64Opera Android Full support 28Safari iOS Full support 9.2Samsung Internet Android ?
aspect-ratio media featureChrome Full support 4Edge ? Firefox Full support 3.5IE Full support 9Opera Full support 53Safari Full support YesWebView Android Full support YesChrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS Full support YesSamsung Internet Android Full support Yes
color media featureChrome Full support YesEdge ? Firefox Full support YesIE ? Opera Full support YesSafari Full support YesWebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
color-gamut media featureChrome Full support 58Edge ? Firefox No support NoIE No support NoOpera Full support 45Safari Full support YesWebView Android ? Chrome Android Full support 58Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android No support NoOpera Android Full support 45Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
color-index media feature
Non-standard
Chrome Full support YesEdge ? Firefox No support NoIE No support NoOpera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
device-aspect-ratio media feature
DeprecatedNon-standard
Chrome Full support YesEdge ? Firefox Full support YesIE ? Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android Full support YesEdge Mobile ? Firefox Android Full support YesOpera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
device-height media feature
DeprecatedNon-standard
Chrome Full support YesEdge ? Firefox Full support YesIE ? Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android Full support YesEdge Mobile ? Firefox Android Full support YesOpera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
device-width media featureChrome Full support YesEdge ? Firefox Full support YesIE ? Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android Full support YesEdge Mobile ? Firefox Android Full support YesOpera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
display-mode media featureChrome Full support 46Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 47
Notes
Full support 47
Notes
Notes Firefox 47 and later support display-mode values fullscreen and browser. Firefox 57 added support for minimal-ui and standalone values.
IE ? Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android Full support 46Edge Mobile No support NoFirefox Android Full support 47
Notes
Full support 47
Notes
Notes Firefox 47 and later support display-mode values fullscreen and browser. Firefox 57 added support for minimal-ui and standalone values.
Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
grid media featureChrome Full support YesEdge ? Firefox Full support YesIE ? Opera Full support YesSafari Full support YesWebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
height media featureChrome ? Edge ? Firefox ? IE Full support 9Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
inverted-colors media feature
ExperimentalNon-standard
Chrome No support NoEdge ? Firefox No support NoIE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari Full support YesWebView Android ? Chrome Android No support NoEdge Mobile ? Firefox Android No support NoOpera Android No support NoSafari iOS Full support YesSamsung Internet Android ?
hover media featureChrome Full support 38
Notes
Full support 38
Notes
Notes Before Chrome 41, the implementation was buggy and reported (hover: none) on non-touch-based computers with a mouse/trackpad. See bug 441613.
Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 64IE No support NoOpera Full support 28Safari Full support 9WebView Android ? Chrome Android Full support 50Edge Mobile Full support 12Firefox Android Full support 64Opera Android Full support 28Safari iOS Full support 9.2Samsung Internet Android ?
light-level media feature
ExperimentalNon-standard
Chrome No support NoEdge ? Firefox No support NoIE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android No support NoChrome Android No support NoEdge Mobile ? Firefox Android No support NoOpera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android ?
monochrome media featureChrome Full support YesEdge ? Firefox Full support YesIE No support NoOpera Full support YesSafari Full support YesWebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
orientation media featureChrome Full support YesEdge ? Firefox Full support YesIE ? Opera Full support YesSafari Full support YesWebView Android Full support YesChrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
overflow-block media feature
ExperimentalNon-standard
Chrome No support NoEdge ? Firefox No support No
Notes
No support No
Notes
Notes See bug 1422235.
IE ? Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android No support NoEdge Mobile ? Firefox Android No support No
Notes
No support No
Notes
Notes See bug 1422235.
Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
overflow-inline media feature
ExperimentalNon-standard
Chrome No support NoEdge ? Firefox No support No
Notes
No support No
Notes
Notes See bug 1422235.
IE ? Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android No support NoEdge Mobile ? Firefox Android No support No
Notes
No support No
Notes
Notes See bug 1422235.
Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
pointer media featureChrome Full support 41Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 64IE ? Opera Full support 28Safari Full support 9WebView Android ? Chrome Android Full support 50Edge Mobile Full support 12Firefox Android Full support 64Opera Android Full support 28Safari iOS Full support 9.2Samsung Internet Android ?
prefers-reduced-motion media feature
Experimental
Chrome No support NoEdge No support NoFirefox Full support 63IE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari Full support 10.1WebView Android No support NoChrome Android No support NoEdge Mobile No support NoFirefox Android Full support 64Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS Full support 10.3Samsung Internet Android ?
resolution media featureChrome Full support 29Edge ? Firefox Full support 8
Full support 8
Partial support 3.5
Notes
Notes Supports <integer> values only.
IE ? Opera Full support YesSafari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
scan media featureChrome No support NoEdge ? Firefox No support NoIE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android No support NoOpera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
scripting media feature
ExperimentalNon-standard
Chrome No support No
Notes
No support No
Notes
Notes See bug 489957.
Edge ? Firefox No support No
Notes
No support No
Notes
Notes See bug 1166581.
IE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android No support No
Notes
No support No
Notes
Notes See bug 489957.
Chrome Android No support No
Notes
No support No
Notes
Notes See bug 489957.
Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android No support No
Notes
No support No
Notes
Notes See bug 1166581.
Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android ?
update media feature
Experimental
Chrome No support NoEdge ? Firefox No support NoIE No support NoOpera No support NoSafari No support NoWebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
width media featureChrome Full support YesEdge ? Firefox Full support YesIE Full support 9Opera Full support YesSafari Full support YesWebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
-moz-device-pixel-ratio media feature
DeprecatedNon-standard
Chrome No support NoEdge ? Firefox Full support 4IE ? Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
-webkit-animation media feature
Non-standard
Chrome Full support YesEdge ? Firefox ? IE ? Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
-webkit-device-pixel-ratio media feature
Non-standard
Chrome Full support YesEdge ? Firefox Full support 49
Notes Disabled
Full support 49
Notes Disabled
Notes Implemented as an alias for for -moz-device-pixel-ratio.
Disabled From version 49: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.device-pixel-ratio-webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Full support 45
Notes Disabled
Notes Implemented as an alias for for -moz-device-pixel-ratio.
Disabled From version 45: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true) and the layout.css.prefixes.device-pixel-ratio-webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE No support NoOpera Full support YesSafari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
-webkit-max-device-pixel-ratio media feature
Non-standard
Chrome Full support YesEdge ? Firefox Full support 49
Notes Disabled
Full support 49
Notes Disabled
Notes Implemented as an alias for for max--moz-device-pixel-ratio.
Disabled From version 49: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.device-pixel-ratio-webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Full support 45
Notes Disabled
Notes Implemented as an alias for for max--moz-device-pixel-ratio.
Disabled From version 45: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true) and the layout.css.prefixes.device-pixel-ratio-webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE No support NoOpera Full support YesSafari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio media feature
Non-standard
Chrome Full support YesEdge ? Firefox Full support 63
Notes
Full support 63
Notes
Notes Implemented as an alias for for -moz-device-pixel-ratio.
Full support 49
Notes Disabled
Notes Implemented as an alias for for min--moz-device-pixel-ratio.
Disabled From version 49: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.device-pixel-ratio-webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Full support 45
Notes Disabled
Notes Implemented as an alias for for min--moz-device-pixel-ratio.
Disabled From version 45: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true) and the layout.css.prefixes.device-pixel-ratio-webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE No support NoOpera Full support YesSafari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
-webkit-transform-2d media feature
Non-standard
Chrome No support NoEdge No support NoFirefox No support NoIE No support NoOpera Full support YesSafari Full support 1WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile No support NoFirefox Android No support NoOpera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
-webkit-transform-3d media feature
Non-standard
Chrome Full support YesEdge ? Firefox Full support 49
Full support 49
Full support 46
Disabled
Disabled From version 46: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE ? Opera Full support YesSafari Full support 1WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
-webkit-transition media feature
DeprecatedNon-standard
Chrome No support NoEdge ? Firefox No support NoIE ? Opera Full support YesSafari Full support 1WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile ? Firefox Android ? Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
Compatibility unknown  
Compatibility unknown
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.
Experimental. Expect behavior to change in the future.
Non-standard. Expect poor cross-browser support.
Non-standard. Expect poor cross-browser support.
Deprecated. Not for use in new websites.
Deprecated. Not for use in new websites.
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.
User must explicitly enable this feature.
User must explicitly enable this feature.

See also