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The animation-fill-mode CSS property specifies how a CSS animation should apply styles to its target before and after its execution.

/* Single animation */
animation-fill-mode: none;
animation-fill-mode: forwards;
animation-fill-mode: backwards;
animation-fill-mode: both;

/* Multiple animations */
animation-fill-mode: none, backwards;
animation-fill-mode: both, forwards, none;

It is often convenient to use the shorthand property animation to set all animation properties at once.

Initial valuenone
Applies toall elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-elements
Computed valueas specified
Animation typediscrete
Canonical orderthe unique non-ambiguous order defined by the formal grammar



The animation will not apply any styles to the target when it's not executing. The element will instead be displayed using any other CSS rules applied to it. This is the default value.
The target will retain the computed values set by the last keyframe encountered during execution. The last keyframe depends on the value of animation-direction and animation-iteration-count:
animation-direction animation-iteration-count last keyframe encountered
normal even or odd 100% or to
reverse even or odd 0% or from
alternate even 0% or from
alternate odd 100% or to
alternate-reverse even 100% or to
alternate-reverse odd 0% or from
The animation will apply the values defined in the first relevant keyframe as soon as it is applied to the target, and retain this during the animation-delay period. The first relevant keyframe depends on the value of animation-direction:
animation-direction first relevant keyframe
normal or alternate 0% or from
reverse or alternate-reverse 100% or to
The animation will follow the rules for both forwards and backwards, thus extending the animation properties in both directions.

Note: When you specify multiple comma-separated values on an animation-* property, they will be assigned to the animations specified in the animation-name property in different ways depending on how many there are. For more information, see Setting multiple animation property values.

Formal syntax


<single-animation-fill-mode> = none | forwards | backwards | both


You can see the effect of animation-fill-mode in the following example. It demonstrates how, for an animation that runs for an infinite time, you can cause it to remain in its final state rather than reverting to the original state (which is the default).


<p>Move your mouse over the gray box!</p>
<div class="demo">
  <div class="grows">This just grows.</div>
  <div class="growsandstays">This grows and stays big.</div>


.demo {
  border-top: 100px solid #ccc;
  height: 300px;

@keyframes grow {
  0% { font-size: 0; }
  100% { font-size: 40px; }

.demo:hover .grows {
  animation-name: grow;
  animation-duration: 3s;

.demo:hover .growsandstays {
  animation-name: grow;
  animation-duration: 3s;
  animation-fill-mode: forwards;

See CSS animations for more examples.


Specification Status Comment
CSS Animations
The definition of 'animation-fill-mode' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Edge Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari (WebKit)
Basic support (Yes)-webkit
5.0 (5.0)-moz
16.0 (16.0)[1]
10 12-o
Feature Android Chrome Edge Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Phone Opera Mobile Safari Mobile Chrome for Android
Basic support ? ? (Yes)-webkit
? ? ? ? ?

[1] In addition to the unprefixed support, Gecko 44.0 (Firefox 44.0 / Thunderbird 44.0 / SeaMonkey 2.41) added support for a -webkit- prefixed version of the property for web compatibility reasons behind the preference layout.css.prefixes.webkit, defaulting to false. Since Gecko 49.0 (Firefox 49.0 / Thunderbird 49.0 / SeaMonkey 2.46) the preference defaults to true.

See also