The animation-fill-mode CSS property sets how a CSS animation applies styles to its target before and after its execution.

Try it

It is often convenient to use the shorthand property animation to set all animation properties at once.


/* Single animation */
animation-fill-mode: none;
animation-fill-mode: forwards;
animation-fill-mode: backwards;
animation-fill-mode: both;

/* Multiple animations */
animation-fill-mode: none, backwards;
animation-fill-mode: both, forwards, none;

/* Global values */
animation-fill-mode: inherit;
animation-fill-mode: initial;
animation-fill-mode: revert;
animation-fill-mode: revert-layer;
animation-fill-mode: unset;



The animation will not apply any styles to the target when it's not executing. The element will instead be displayed using any other CSS rules applied to it. This is the default value.


The target will retain the computed values set by the last keyframe encountered during execution. The last keyframe depends on the value of animation-direction and animation-iteration-count:

animation-direction animation-iteration-count last keyframe encountered
normal even or odd 100% or to
reverse even or odd 0% or from
alternate even 0% or from
alternate odd 100% or to
alternate-reverse even 100% or to
alternate-reverse odd 0% or from

The animation will apply the values defined in the first relevant keyframe as soon as it is applied to the target, and retain this during the animation-delay period. The first relevant keyframe depends on the value of animation-direction:

animation-direction first relevant keyframe
normal or alternate 0% or from
reverse or alternate-reverse 100% or to

The animation will follow the rules for both forwards and backwards, thus extending the animation properties in both directions.

Note: When you specify multiple comma-separated values on an animation-* property, they are applied to the animations in the order in which the animation-names appear. For situations where the number of animations and animation-* property values do not match, see Setting multiple animation property values.

Note: animation-fill-mode has the same effect when creating CSS scroll-driven animations as it does for regular time-based animations.

Formal definition

Initial valuenone
Applies toall elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-elements
Computed valueas specified
Animation typeNot animatable

Formal syntax

animation-fill-mode = 

<single-animation-fill-mode> =
none |
forwards |
backwards |


Setting fill mode

You can see the effect of animation-fill-mode in the following example. It demonstrates how you can make the animation remain in its final state rather than reverting to the original state (which is the default).


<p>Move your mouse over the gray box!</p>
<div class="demo">
  <div class="growsandstays">This grows and stays big.</div>
  <div class="grows">This just grows.</div>


.demo {
  border-top: 100px solid #ccc;
  height: 300px;

@keyframes grow {
  0% {
    font-size: 0;
  100% {
    font-size: 40px;

.demo:hover .grows {
  animation-name: grow;
  animation-duration: 3s;

.demo:hover .growsandstays {
  animation-name: grow;
  animation-duration: 3s;
  animation-fill-mode: forwards;


See CSS animations for more examples.


CSS Animations Level 1
# animation-fill-mode

Browser compatibility

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See also