The matrix3d() CSS function defines a 3D transformation as a 4x4 homogeneous matrix. Its result is a <transform-function> data type.


The matrix3d() function is specified with 16 values. They are described in the column-major order.

matrix3d(a1, b1, c1, d1, a2, b2, c2, d2, a3, b3, c3, d3, a4, b4, c4, d4)


a1 b1 c1 d1 a2 b2 c2 d2 a3 b3 c3 d3 d4
Are <number>s describing the linear transformation.
a4 b4 c4
Are <number>s describing the translation to apply.
Note: Until Firefox 16, Gecko accepted a <length> value for a4, b4 and c4.
Cartesian coordinates on ℝ2 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ2 Cartesian coordinates on ℝ3 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ3
This transformation applies to the 3D space and can't be represented on the plane. A generic 3D affine transformation can't be represented using a Cartesian-coordinate matrix, as translations are not linear transformations. a1a2a3a4b1b2b3b4c1c2c3c4d1d2d3d4



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 Contributors to this page: mfluehr, Sebastianz, mrstork, SphinxKnight
 Last updated by: mfluehr,