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    writing-mode

    This is an experimental technology
    Because this technology's specification has not stabilized, check the compatibility table for the proper prefixes to use in various browsers. Also note that the syntax and behavior of an experimental technology is subject to change in future versions of browsers as the spec changes.

    The writing-mode property defines whether lines of text are laid out horizontally or vertically and the direction in which blocks progress.

    The property specifies the block flow direction, which is the direction in which block-level containers are stacked, and the direction in which inline-level content flows within a block container. Thus the writing-mode property also determines the ordering of block-level content.

    • Initial value horizontal-tb
    • Applies to all elements except table row groups, table column groups, table rows, and table columns
    • Inherited yes
    • Media visual
    • Computed value as specified
    • Animatable no
    • Canonical order the unique non-ambiguous order defined by the formal grammar

    Syntax

    /* Keyword values */
    writing-mode: horizontal-tb;
    writing-mode: vertical-rl;
    writing-mode: vertical-lr;
    
    /* Global values */
    writing-mode: inherit;
    writing-mode: initial;
    writing-mode: unsel;
    

    Values

    horizontal-tb
    Content flows horizontally from left to right, vertically from top to bottom. The next horizontal line is positioned below the previous line.
    vertical-rl
    Content flows vertically from top to bottom, horizontally from right to left. The next vertical line is positioned to the left of the previous line.
    vertical-lr
    Content flows vertically from top to bottom, horizontally from left to right. The next vertical line is positioned to the right of the previous line.
    lr
    Deprecated except for SVG1 documents. For CSS, use horizontal-tb.
    lr-tb
    Deprecated except for SVG1 documents. For CSS, use horizontal-tb.
    rl
    Deprecated except for SVG1 documents. For CSS, use horizontal-tb.
    tb
    Deprecated except for SVG1 documents. For CSS, use vertical-rl.
    tb-rl
    Deprecated except for SVG1 documents. For CSS, use vertical-rl.

    Formal syntax

    horizontal-tb | vertical-rl | vertical-lr

    Example

    <p class="exampleText">Example text</p>
    
    .exampleText {
      writing-mode: vertical-rl;
    }

    Specification

    Specification Status Comment
    CSS Writing Modes Module Level 3
    The definition of 'writing-mode' in that specification.
    Candidate Recommendation Initial definition

    Browser compatibility

    Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
    Basic support (Yes) -webkit 41 (41)[1] 9.0 -ms[2] (Yes) -webkit 8.0 -webkit
    SVG 1.1 values lr, lr-tb, rl, tb, tb-rl (Yes) Not supported 9.0 -ms[2] (Yes) ?
    Feature Android Chrome for Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
    Basic support ? (Yes) 41.0 (41) [1] ? ? 8.0 -webkit
    SVG 1.1 values lr, lr-tb, rl, tb, tb-rl ? ? Not supported ? ? ?

    [1] An experimental implementation was available since Gecko 36. It is governed by the preference layout.css.vertical-text.enabled, defaulting to false until Firefox 38. From Firefox 39 and Firefox 40, the preference was true for Nightly and DevTools editions only. Note that not all CSS widgets (e.g. tables) obey to it, yet.

    [2] The implementation in Internet Explorer differs from the specification. See the related article in the Internet Explorer Dev Center.

    See also

    Document Tags and Contributors

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    Last updated by: Marsf,
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