Baseline 2023

Newly available

Since November 2023, this feature works across the latest devices and browser versions. This feature might not work in older devices or browsers.

The :user-invalid CSS pseudo-class represents any validated form element whose value isn't valid based on their validation constraints, after the user has interacted with it.

The :user-invalid pseudo-class must match an :invalid, :out-of-range, or blank-but :required element between the time the user has attempted to submit the form and before the user has interacted again with the form element.


:user-invalid {
  /* ... */


Setting a color and symbol on :user-invalid

In the following example, the red border and ❌ only display once the user has interacted with the field. Try typing something other than an email address to see it in action.

  <label for="email">Email *: </label>
  <input id="email" name="email" type="email" required />
input:user-invalid {
  border: 2px solid red;

input:user-invalid + span::before {
  content: "✖";
  color: red;


Selectors Level 4
# user-invalid-pseudo

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also