exp()

The exp() CSS function is an exponential function that takes an number as an argument and returns the mathematical constant e raised to the power of the given number.

The mathematical constant e is the base of natural logarithms, and is approximately 2.718281828459045.

The exp(number) function contains a calculation which returns the same value as pow(e, number).

Syntax

css

/* A <number> value */
width: calc(100px * exp(-1)); /* 100px * 0.367879441171442 = 36px */
width: calc(100px * exp(0)); /* 100px * 1 = 100px */
width: calc(100px * exp(1)); /* 100px * 2.718281828459045 = 217px */

Parameter

The exp(number) function accepts only one value as its parameter.

number

A calculation which resolves to a <number>. Representing the value to be raised by a power of e.

Return value

Returns a non-negative <number> representing enumber, which is the result of calculating e raised to the power of number.

  • If number is -Infinity, the result is 0.
  • If number is 0, the result is 1.
  • If number is 1, the result is e (i.e. 2.718281828459045).
  • If number is Infinity, the result is Infinity.

Formal syntax

<exp()> = 
exp( <calc-sum> )

<calc-sum> =
<calc-product> [ [ '+' | '-' ] <calc-product> ]*

<calc-product> =
<calc-value> [ [ '*' | '/' ] <calc-value> ]*

<calc-value> =
<number> |
<dimension> |
<percentage> |
<calc-keyword> |
( <calc-sum> )

<calc-keyword> =
e |
pi |
infinity |
-infinity |
NaN

Examples

Rotate elements

The exp() function can be used to rotate elements as it return a <number>.

HTML

html

<div class="box box-1"></div>
<div class="box box-2"></div>
<div class="box box-3"></div>
<div class="box box-4"></div>
<div class="box box-5"></div>

CSS

css

div.box {
  width: 100px;
  height: 100px;
  background: linear-gradient(orange, red);
}
div.box-1 {
  transform: rotate(calc(1turn * exp(-1))); // 0.3678794411714423turn
}
div.box-2 {
  transform: rotate(calc(1turn * exp(-0.75))); // 0.4723665527410147turn
}
div.box-3 {
  transform: rotate(calc(1turn * exp(-0.5))); // 0.6065306597126334turn
}
div.box-4 {
  transform: rotate(calc(1turn * exp(-0.25))); // 0.7788007830714049turn
}
div.box-5 {
  transform: rotate(calc(1turn * exp(0))); // 1turn
}

Result

Scale headings by fixed ratio

The exp() function can be useful for strategies like CSS modular scale, which relates all the font-sizes on a page to each other by a fixed ratio.

HTML

html

<h1>Heading 1</h1>
<h2>Heading 2</h2>
<h3>Heading 3</h3>
<h4>Heading 4</h4>
<h5>Heading 5</h5>
<h6>Heading 6</h6>

CSS

css

h1 {
  font-size: calc(1rem * exp(1.25)); // 3.4903429574618414rem
}
h2 {
  font-size: calc(1rem * exp(1)); // 2.718281828459045rem
}
h3 {
  font-size: calc(1rem * exp(0.75)); // 2.117000016612675rem
}
h4 {
  font-size: calc(1rem * exp(0.5)); // 1.6487212707001282rem
}
h5 {
  font-size: calc(1rem * exp(0.25)); // 1.2840254166877414rem
}
h6 {
  font-size: calc(1rem * exp(0)); // 1rem
}

Result

Specifications

Specification
CSS Values and Units Module Level 4
# exponent-funcs

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also