The :invalid CSS pseudo-class represents any <input> or other <form> element whose contents fail to validate.

/* Selects any invalid <input> */
input:invalid {
  background-color: pink;
}

This pseudo-class is useful for highlighting field errors for the user.

Syntax

:invalid

Example

This example presents a simple form that colors elements green when they validate and red when they don't.

HTML

<form>
  <label for="url_input">Enter a URL:</label>
  <input type="url" id="url_input" />
  <br />
  <br />
  <label for="email_input">Enter an email address:</label>
  <input type="email" id="email_input" required/>
</form>

CSS

input:invalid {
  background-color: #ffdddd;
}

form:invalid {
  border: 5px solid #ffdddd;
}

input:valid {
  background-color: #ddffdd;
}

form:valid {
  border: 5px solid #ddffdd;
}
  
input:required {
  border-color: #800000;
  border-width: 3px;
}

input:required:invalid {
  border-color: #C00000;
}

Result

Accessibility concerns

The color red is commonly used to indicate invalid input. People who have certain types of color blindness will be unable to determine the input's state unless it is accompanied by an additional indicator that does not rely on color to convey meaning. Typically, descriptive text and/or an icon are used.

Notes

Radio buttons

If any one of the radio buttons in a group is required, the :invalid pseudo-class is applied to all of them if none of the buttons in the group is selected. (Grouped radio buttons share the same value for their name attribute.)

Gecko defaults

By default, Gecko does not apply a style to the :invalid pseudo-class. However, it does apply a style (a red "glow" using the box-shadow property) to the :-moz-ui-invalid pseudo-class, which applies in a subset of cases for :invalid.

You can disable the glow using the following CSS, or completely override it to alter the appearance of invalid fields:

:invalid {
  box-shadow: none;
}

:-moz-submit-invalid {
  box-shadow: none;
}

:-moz-ui-invalid {
  box-shadow: none;
}

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
HTML Living Standard
The definition of ':invalid' in that specification.
Living Standard No change.
HTML5
The definition of ':invalid' in that specification.
Recommendation Defines the semantics of HTML and constraint validation.
Selectors Level 4
The definition of ':invalid' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge MobileFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidiOS SafariSamsung Internet
Basic supportChrome Full support 10Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 4IE Full support 10Opera Full support 10Safari Full support 5WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 10Safari iOS Full support 5Samsung Internet Android ?
Applies to <form> elementsChrome Full support YesEdge No support NoFirefox Full support 13IE No support NoOpera Full support YesSafari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Edge Mobile No support NoFirefox Android Full support 14Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
Compatibility unknown  
Compatibility unknown

See also

Document Tags and Contributors

Last updated by: SphinxKnight,