pow()

The pow() CSS function is an exponential function that returns the value of a base raised to the power of a number.

The exp() function is a special case of pow() where the value of the base is the mathematical constant e.

Syntax

/* A <number> value */
width: calc(10px * pow(5, 2));  /* 10px * 25 = 250px */
width: calc(10px * pow(5, 3));  /* 10px * 125 = 1250px */
width: calc(10px * pow(2, 10)); /* 10px * 1024 = 10240px */

Parameters

The pow(base, number) function accepts two comma-separated values as its parameters.

base

A calculation which resolves to a <number>, representing the base.

number

A calculation which resolves to a <number>, representing the exponent.

Return value

Returns a <number> representing base taken to the power of number.

Formal syntax

<pow()> = 
pow( <calc-sum> , <calc-sum> )

<calc-sum> =
<calc-product> [ [ '+' | '-' ] <calc-product> ]*

<calc-product> =
<calc-value> [ [ '*' | '/' ] <calc-value> ]*

<calc-value> =
<number> |
<dimension> |
<percentage> |
<calc-constant> |
( <calc-sum> )

<calc-constant> =
e |
pi |
infinity |
-infinity |
NaN

Examples

Scale headings by fixed ratio

The pow() function can be useful for strategies like CSS Modular Scale, which relates all the font-sizes on a page to each other by a fixed ratio.

HTML

<h1> Heading 1 </h1>
<h2> Heading 2 </h2>
<h3> Heading 3 </h3>
<h4> Heading 4 </h4>
<h5> Heading 5 </h5>
<h6> Heading 6 </h6>

CSS

h1 {
  font-size: calc(1rem * pow(1.5, 4));
}
h2 {
  font-size: calc(1rem * pow(1.5, 3));
}
h3 {
  font-size: calc(1rem * pow(1.5, 2));
}
h4 {
  font-size: calc(1rem * pow(1.5, 1));
}
h5 {
  font-size: calc(1rem * pow(1.5, 0));
}
h6 {
  font-size: calc(1rem * pow(1.5, -1));
}

Result

Specifications

Specification
Unknown specification
# exponent-funcs

See also