Handling overflow in multi-column layout

In this guide, we look at how to deal with overflow in a multi-column (multicol) layout, both inside the column boxes and in situations where there is more content than will fit into the container.

Overflow inside column boxes

An overflow situation happens when an item's size is larger than the column box. For example, the situation could happen when an image in a column is wider than the column-width value or the width of the column based on the number of columns declared with column-count.

In this situation, the content should visibly overflow into the next column, rather than be clipped by the column box.

There are two columns of text. In the left column, there is a photo that is wider than the column. The image expands into that second column, appearing behind the text of the right column. The flow of text in the right column isn't affected by the protruding photo, but the appearance is.

If you want an image to fit the column box, setting max-width: 100% will prevent the image from growing beyond its container, in this case, the column box.

More columns than will fit

How overflowing columns are handled depends on whether the media context is fragmented, such as print, or is continuous, such as a web page.

In fragmented media, after a fragment (for example, a page) is filled with columns, the columns will move to a new page and fill that up with columns. In continuous media, columns will overflow in the inline direction. On the web, this means that you will get a horizontal scrollbar.

The example below shows this overflow behavior. The multicol container has a set height and there is more text than space to create columns; therefore, we get columns created outside of the container.

Using vertical media queries

One issue with multicol on the web is that if the columns are taller than the viewport, the reader will need to scroll the page up and down to read, which is not a good user experience. One way to avoid this is to only apply the column properties if you know there is enough vertical space.

In the example below, we used a min-height @media query to ensure there is enough vertical space before applying the column properties.

Next steps

In the final guide in this series, we will see how fragmentation works with multicol layouts to give us control over how content breaks between columns.