The font-variant-ligatures CSS property controls which ligatures and contextual forms are used in textual content of the elements it applies to. This leads to more harmonized forms in the resulting text.

/* Keyword values */
font-variant-ligatures: normal;
font-variant-ligatures: none;
font-variant-ligatures: common-ligatures;           /* <common-lig-values> */
font-variant-ligatures: no-common-ligatures;        /* <common-lig-values> */
font-variant-ligatures: discretionary-ligatures;    /* <discretionary-lig-values> */
font-variant-ligatures: no-discretionary-ligatures; /* <discretionary-lig-values> */
font-variant-ligatures: historical-ligatures;       /* <historical-lig-values> */
font-variant-ligatures: no-historical-ligatures;    /* <historical-lig-values> */
font-variant-ligatures: contextual;                 /* <contextual-alt-values> */
font-variant-ligatures: no-contextual;              /* <contextual-alt-values> */
font-variant-ligatures: contextual;                 /* <no-historical-ligatures> <common-ligatures> */

/* Global values */
font-variant-ligatures: inherit;
font-variant-ligatures: initial;
font-variant-ligatures: unset;

Initial valuenormal
Applies toall elements. It also applies to ::first-letter and ::first-line.
Computed valueas specified
Animation typediscrete
Canonical orderorder of appearance in the formal grammar of the values


The font-variant-ligatures property is specified as one of the keyword values listed below.


This keyword leads to the activation of the usual ligatures and contextual forms needed for correct rendering. The ligatures and forms activated depend on the font, language and kind of script. This is the default value.
This keyword specifies that all ligatures and contextual forms are disabled, even common ones.
These values control the most common ligatures, like for fi, ffi, th or similar. They correspond to the OpenType values liga and clig. Two values are possible:
  • common-ligatures activating these ligatures. Note that the keyword normal activates these ligatures.
  • no-common-ligatures deactivating these ligatures.
These values control specific ligatures, specific to the font and defined by the type designer. They correspond to the OpenType values dlig. Two values are possible:
  • discretionary-ligatures activating these ligatures.
  • no-discretionary-ligatures deactivating the ligatures. Note that the keyword normal usually deactivates these ligatures.
These values control the ligatures used historically, in old books, like the German tz digraph being displayed ß. They correspond to the OpenType values hlig. Two values are possible:
  • historical-ligatures activating these ligatures.
  • no-historical-ligatures deactivating the ligatures. Note that the keyword normal usually deactivates these ligatures.
These values control whether letters adapt to their context—that is, whether they adapt to the surrounding letters. These values correspond to the OpenType values calt. Two values are possible:
  • contextual specifies that the contextual alternates are to be used. Note that the keyword normal usually activates these ligatures too.
  • no-contextual prevents their use.

Formal syntax

normal | none | [ <common-lig-values> || <discretionary-lig-values> || <historical-lig-values> || <contextual-alt-values> ]

<common-lig-values> = [ common-ligatures | no-common-ligatures ]
<discretionary-lig-values> = [ discretionary-ligatures | no-discretionary-ligatures ]
<historical-lig-values> = [ historical-ligatures | no-historical-ligatures ]
<contextual-alt-values> = [ contextual | no-contextual ]


p {
  font-variant-ligatures: none;


Specification Status Comment
CSS Fonts Module Level 3
The definition of 'font-variant-ligatures' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Initial definition

Browser Compatibility

FeatureChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafari
Basic support


31 -webkit-



24 — 341



19 -webkit-


7 -webkit-

FeatureAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge mobileFirefox for AndroidIE mobileOpera AndroidiOS Safari
Basic support


4.4 -webkit-

34 No


24 — 341



7 -webkit-

1. From version 24 until version 34 (exclusive): this feature is behind the layout.css.font-features.enabled preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.

Document Tags and Contributors

 Last updated by: fscholz,