The matrix() CSS function defines a homogeneous 2D transformation matrix. Its result is a <transform-function> data type.

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Note: matrix(a, b, c, d, tx, ty) is a shorthand for matrix3d(a, b, 0, 0, c, d, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, tx, ty, 0, 1).


The matrix() function is specified with six values. The constant values are implied and not passed as parameters; the other parameters are described in the column-major order.

matrix(a, b, c, d, tx, ty)


a b c d

Are <number>s describing the linear transformation.

tx ty

Are <number>s describing the translation to apply.

Cartesian coordinates on ℝ^2 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ^2 Cartesian coordinates on ℝ^3 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ^3
( a c b d ) ( a c tx b d ty 0 0 1 ) ( a c tx b d ty 0 0 1 ) ( a c 0 tx b d 0 ty 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 )
[a b c d tx ty]

The values represent the following functions: matrix(scaleX(), skewY(), skewX(), scaleY(), translateX(), translateY())



<div class="changed">Changed</div>


div {
  width: 80px;
  height: 80px;
  background-color: skyblue;

.changed {
  transform: matrix(1, 2, -1, 1, 80, 80);
  background-color: pink;



CSS Transforms Module Level 1
# funcdef-transform-matrix

Browser compatibility

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See also