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This is an experimental technology
Check the Browser compatibility table carefully before using this in production.

This page is not complete.

The rotate CSS property allows you to specify rotation transforms individually and independantly of the transform property. This maps better to typical user interface usage, and saves having to remember the exact order of transform functions to specify in the transform value.


/* Keyword values */
rotate: none;

/* Angle value */
rotate: 90deg;
rotate: 0.25turn;
rotate: 1.57rad;

/* x, y, or z axis name plus angle */
rotate: x 90deg;
rotate: y 0.25turn;
rotate: z 1.57rad;

/* Vector plus angle value */
rotate: 1 1 1 90deg;


Angle value
An <angle> specifying the angle to rotate the affected element through, around the Z axis. Equivalent to a rotate() (2D rotation) function.
x, y, or z axis name plus angle value
The name of the axis you want to rotate the affected element around ("x", "y", or "z"), plus an <angle> specifying the angle to rotate the element through. Equivalent to a rotateX()/rotateY()/rotateZ() (3D rotation) function.
Vector plus angle value
Three <number>s representing an origin-centered vector that defines a line around which you want to rotate the element, plus an <angle> specifying the angle to rotate the element through. Equivalent to a rotate3d() (3D rotation) function.
Specifies that no rotation should be applied.

Formal syntax

none | [ x | y | z | <number>{3} ]? && <angle>



  <p class="rotate">Rotation</p>


* {
  box-sizing: border-box;

html {
  font-family: sans-serif;

div {
  width: 150px;
  margin: 0 auto;

p {
  padding: 10px 5px;
  border: 3px solid black;
  border-radius: 20px;
  width: 150px;
  font-size: 1.2rem;
  text-align: center;

.rotate {
  transition: rotate 1s;

div:hover .rotate {
  rotate: 1 -0.5 1 180deg;



Specification Status Comment
CSS Transforms Level 2
The definition of 'individual transforms' in that specification.
Editor's Draft Initial definition.

Initial valuenone
Applies totransformable elements
Computed valueas specified
Animation typea transform
Canonical orderper grammar
Creates stacking contextyes

Browser compatibility

FeatureChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafari
Basic support Yes No601 No No No
x, y, or z axis name plus angle value Yes No No No No No
FeatureAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge mobileFirefox for AndroidOpera AndroidiOS SafariSamsung Internet
Basic support Yes Yes No601 No No Yes
x, y, or z axis name plus angle value Yes Yes No No No No Yes

1. From version 60: this feature is behind the layout.css.individual-transform.enabled preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.

Document Tags and Contributors

Contributors to this page: mfluehr, chrisdavidmills, Siilwyn, ExE-Boss
Last updated by: mfluehr,