rotate

The rotate CSS property allows you to specify rotation transforms individually and independently of the transform property. This maps better to typical user interface usage, and saves having to remember the exact order of transform functions to specify in the transform property.

Syntax

/* Keyword values */
rotate: none;

/* Angle value */
rotate: 90deg;
rotate: 0.25turn;
rotate: 1.57rad;

/* x, y, or z axis name plus angle */
rotate: x 90deg;
rotate: y 0.25turn;
rotate: z 1.57rad;

/* Vector plus angle value */
rotate: 1 1 1 90deg;

/* Global values */
rotate: inherit;
rotate: initial;
rotate: revert;
rotate: unset;

Values

angle value

An <angle> specifying the angle to rotate the affected element through, around the Z axis. Equivalent to a rotate() (2D rotation) function.

x, y, or z axis name plus angle value

The name of the axis you want to rotate the affected element around ("x", "y", or "z"), plus an <angle> specifying the angle to rotate the element through. Equivalent to a rotateX()/rotateY()/rotateZ() (3D rotation) function.

vector plus angle value

Three <number>s representing an origin-centered vector that defines a line around which you want to rotate the element, plus an <angle> specifying the angle to rotate the element through. Equivalent to a rotate3d() (3D rotation) function.

none

Specifies that no rotation should be applied.

Formal definition

Initial valuenone
Applies totransformable elements
Inheritedno
Computed valueas specified
Animation typea transform
Creates stacking contextyes

Formal syntax

none | <angle> | [ x | y | z | <number>{3} ] && <angle>

Examples

Rotate an element on hover

HTML

<div>
  <p class="rotate">Rotation</p>
</div>

CSS

* {
  box-sizing: border-box;
}

html {
  font-family: sans-serif;
}

div {
  width: 150px;
  margin: 0 auto;
}

p {
  padding: 10px 5px;
  border: 3px solid black;
  border-radius: 20px;
  width: 150px;
  font-size: 1.2rem;
  text-align: center;
}

.rotate {
  transition: rotate 1s;
}

div:hover .rotate {
  rotate: 1 -0.5 1 180deg;
}

Result

Specifications

Specification
CSS Transforms Module Level 2 (CSS Transforms 2)
# individual-transforms

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser

See also

Note: skew is not an independent transform value