rotate3d()

The rotate3d() CSS function defines a transformation that rotates an element around a fixed axis in 3D space, without deforming it. Its result is a <transform-function> data type.

In 3D space, rotations have three degrees of liberty, which together describe a single axis of rotation. The axis of rotation is defined by an [x, y, z] vector and pass by the origin (as defined by the transform-origin property). If, as specified, the vector is not normalized (i.e., if the sum of the square of its three coordinates is not 1), the user agent will normalize it internally. A non-normalizable vector, such as the null vector, [0, 0, 0], will cause the rotation to be ignored, but without invaliding the whole CSS property.

Note: Unlike rotations in the 2D plane, the composition of 3D rotations is usually not commutative. In other words, the order in which the rotations are applied impacts the result.

Syntax

The amount of rotation created by rotate3d() is specified by three <number>s and one <angle>. The <number>s represent the x-, y-, and z-coordinates of the vector denoting the axis of rotation. The <angle> represents the angle of rotation; if positive, the movement will be clockwise; if negative, it will be counter-clockwise.

rotate3d(x, y, z, a)

Values

x
Is a <number> describing the x-coordinate of the vector denoting the axis of rotation which could between 0 and 1.
y
Is a <number> describing the y-coordinate of the vector denoting the axis of rotation which could between 0 and 1.
z
Is a <number> describing the z-coordinate of the vector denoting the axis of rotation which could between 0 and 1.
a
Is an <angle> representing the angle of the rotation. A positive angle denotes a clockwise rotation, a negative angle a counter-clockwise one.
Cartesian coordinates on ℝ2 This transformation applies to the 3D space and can't be represented on the plane.
Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ2
Cartesian coordinates on ℝ3 1+(1-cos(a))(x2-1)z·sin(a)+xy(1-cos(a))-y·sin(a)+xz·(1-cos(a))-z·sin(a)+xy·(1-cos(a))1+(1-cos(a))(y2-1)x·sin(a)+yz·(1-cos(a))ysin(a) + xz(1-cos(a))-xsin(a)+yz(1-cos(a))1+(1-cos(a))(z2-1)t0001
Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ3

Examples

Rotating on the y-axis

HTML

<div>Normal</div>
<div class="rotated">Rotated</div>

CSS

body {
  perspective: 800px;
}

div {
  width: 80px;
  height: 80px;
  background-color: skyblue;
}

.rotated {
  transform: rotate3d(0, 1, 0, 60deg);
  background-color: pink;
}

Result

Rotating on a custom axis

HTML

<div>Normal</div>
<div class="rotated">Rotated</div>

CSS

body {
  perspective: 800px;
}

div { 
  width: 80px;
  height: 80px;
  background-color: skyblue;
}

.rotated {
  transform: rotate3d(1, 2, -1, 192deg);
  background-color: pink;
}

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Transforms Level 2
The definition of 'rotate3d()' in that specification.
Editor's Draft Initial definition

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
<transform-function>Chrome Full support 1Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 3.5
Notes
Full support 3.5
Notes
Notes Firefox 14 removed experimental support for skew(), but it was reintroduced in Firefox 15.
Notes Before Firefox 16, the translation values of matrix() and matrix3d() could be <length>s, in addition to the standard <number>.
IE Full support 9
Notes
Full support 9
Notes
Notes Internet Explorer 9 supports 2D but not 3D transforms. In version 9, mixing 2D and 3D transform functions invalidates the entire property.
Opera Full support 10.5Safari Full support 3.1WebView Android Full support 2Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 11Safari iOS Full support 3.2Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0
3D supportChrome Full support 12Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 10IE Full support 10Opera Full support 15Safari Full support 4WebView Android Full support 3Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 10Opera Android Full support 14Safari iOS Full support 3.2Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0

Legend

Full support  
Full support
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.

See also