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The @media CSS at-rule can be used to apply styles based on the result of one or more media queries, which test a device's type, specific characteristics, and environment.

In CSS, the @media rule may be placed at the top level of your code or nested inside any other conditional group at-rule.

/* Media query */
@media screen and (min-width: 900px) {
  article {
    padding: 1rem 3rem;
  }
}

/* Nested media query */
@supports (display: flex) {
  @media screen and (min-width: 900px) {
    article {
      display: flex;
    }
  }
}

Besides its use in the @media rule, a media query may also be applied to an HTML <link> element to restrict an entire style sheet to certain media.

<!-- Media-dependent style sheet included in HTML -->
<link rel="stylesheet" media="screen and (min-width: 900px)" href="widescreen-styles.css" />

In JavaScript, @media can be accessed via the CSSMediaRule CSS object model interface.

Syntax

The @media at-rule is composed of one or more media queries, each of which consists of an optional media type and any number of media feature expressions. Multiple queries can be combined in various ways by using logical operators, and are case-insensitive.

Corresponding styles are applied only if a media query computes to true, i.e., when the specified media type matches the type of device the document is being displayed on and all media feature expressions compute as true. Queries involving unknown media types are always false.

Note: A style sheet with a media query attached to its <link> tag will still download even if the query returns false. Nevertheless, its contents will not apply unless and until the result of the query changes to true.

Media types

Media types describe the general category of a device. Unless you use the not or only logical operators, the media type is optional and the all type will be implied.

all
Suitable for all devices.
print
Intended for paged material and for documents viewed on screen in print preview mode. Please consult the section on paged media, and the media section of the Getting Started tutorial for information about formatting issues that are specific to paged media.
screen
Intended primarily for color computer screens.
speech
Intended for speech synthesizers.
Deprecated media types: CSS2.1 and Media Queries 3 defined several additional media types (tty, tv, projection, handheld, braille, embossed, and aural), but they were deprecated in Media Queries 4 and shouldn't be used. The aural type has been replaced by speech, which is similar.

Media features

Media feature expressions test for specific characteristics of the user agent, output device, or environment. They are entirely optional. Each media feature expression must be surrounded by parentheses.

Name Summary Notes
width Width of the viewport  
height Height of the viewport  
aspect-ratio Width-to-height aspect ratio of the viewport  
orientation Orientation of the viewport  
resolution Pixel density of the output device  
scan Scanning process of the output device  
grid Does the device use a grid or bitmap screen?  
update How frequently the output device can modify the appearance of content Added in Media Queries Level 4.
overflow-block How does the output device handle content that overflows the viewport along the block axis? Added in Media Queries Level 4.
overflow-inline Can content that overflows the viewport along the inline axis be scrolled? Added in Media Queries Level 4.
color Number of bits per color component of the output device, or zero if the device isn't color  
color-gamut Approximate range of colors that are supported by the user agent and output device Added in Media Queries Level 4.
color-index Number of entries in the output device's color lookup table, or zero if the device does not use such a table  
display-mode The display mode of the application, as specified in the web app manifest's display member Defined in the Web App Manifest spec.
monochrome Bits per pixel in the output device's monochrome frame buffer, or zero if the device isn't monochrome  
inverted-colors Is the user agent or underlying OS inverting colors? Deferred to Media Queries Level 5.
pointer Is the primary input mechanism a pointing device, and if so, how accurate is it? Added in Media Queries Level 4.
hover Does the primary input mechanism allow the user to hover over elements? Added in Media Queries Level 4.
any-pointer Is any available input mechanism a pointing device, and if so, how accurate is it? Added in Media Queries Level 4.
any-hover Does any available input mechanism allow the user to hover over elements? Added in Media Queries Level 4.
light-level Light level of the environment Deferred to Media Queries Level 5.
scripting Is scripting (e.g., JavaScript) available? Deferred to Media Queries Level 5.
device-width Width of the rendering surface of the output device Deprecated in Media Queries Level 4.
device-height Height of the rendering surface of the output device Deprecated in Media Queries Level 4.
device-aspect-ratio Width-to-height aspect ratio of the output device Deprecated in Media Queries Level 4.
-webkit-device-pixel-ratio Number of physical device pixels per CSS pixel Nonstandard; WebKit/Blink-specific. If possible, use the resolution media feature instead.
-webkit-transform-3d Are CSS 3D transforms supported? Nonstandard; WebKit/Blink-specific. If possible, use @supports instead.
-webkit-transform-2d Are CSS 2D transforms supported? Nonstandard; WebKit-specific. If possible, use @supports instead.
-webkit-transition Are CSS transitions supported? Nonstandard; WebKit-specific. If possible, use @supports instead.
-webkit-animation Are CSS animations supported? Nonstandard; WebKit-specific. If possible, use @supports instead.

Logical operators

The logical operators not, and, and only can be used to compose a complex media query. You can also combine multiple media queries into a single rule using a comma-separated list.

and

The and operator is used for combining multiple media features together into a single media query, requiring each chained feature to return true in order for the query to be true. It is also used for joining media features with media types.

not

The not operator is used to negate a media query, returning true if the query would otherwise return false. If present in a comma-separated list, it will only negate the specific query to which it is applied. If you use the not operator, you must specify an explicit media type.

Note: The not keyword can't be used to negate an individual feature expression, only an entire media query.

only

The only operator is used to apply a style only if an entire query matches, and is useful for preventing older browsers from applying selected styles. If you use the only operator, you must specify an explicit media type.

comma-separated lists

Each query in a comma-separated media query list is treated separately from the others. If any of the queries in a list is true, the entire media statement returns true. In other words, lists behave like the logical operator or.

Formal syntax

@media <media-query-list> {
  <group-rule-body>
}

where
<media-query-list> = <media-query>#

where
<media-query> = <media-condition> | [ not | only ]? <media-type> [ and <media-condition-without-or> ]?

where
<media-condition> = <media-not> | <media-and> | <media-or> | <media-in-parens>
<media-type> = <ident>
<media-condition-without-or> = <media-not> | <media-and> | <media-in-parens>

where
<media-not> = not <media-in-parens>
<media-and> = <media-in-parens> [ and <media-in-parens> ]+
<media-or> = <media-in-parens> [ or <media-in-parens> ]+
<media-in-parens> = ( <media-condition> ) | <media-feature> | <general-enclosed>

where
<media-feature> = ( [ <mf-plain> | <mf-boolean> | <mf-range> ] )
<general-enclosed> = [ <function-token> <any-value> ) ] | ( <ident> <any-value> )

where
<mf-plain> = <mf-name> : <mf-value>
<mf-boolean> = <mf-name>
<mf-range> = <mf-name> [ '<' | '>' ]? '='? <mf-value> | <mf-value> [ '<' | '>' ]? '='? <mf-name> | <mf-value> '<' '='? <mf-name> '<' '='? <mf-value> | <mf-value> '>' '='? <mf-name> '>' '='? <mf-value>

where
<mf-name> = <ident>
<mf-value> = <number> | <dimension> | <ident> | <ratio>

Examples

@media print {
  body { font-size: 10pt; }
}

@media screen {
  body { font-size: 13px; }
}

@media screen, print {
  body { line-height: 1.2; }
}

@media only screen 
  and (min-device-width: 320px) 
  and (max-device-width: 480px)
  and (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2) {
    body { line-height: 1.4; }
}

For more media feature examples, please see the reference page for each specific feature. For more logical operator examples, please see Using media queries.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
Compatibility Standard
The definition of 'CSS Media Queries' in that specification.
Living Standard Standardizes the -webkit-device-pixel-ratio and -webkit-transform-3d media features.
CSS Conditional Rules Module Level 3
The definition of '@media' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Defines the basic syntax of the @media rule.
Media Queries Level 4
The definition of '@media' in that specification.
Working Draft

Adds scripting, pointer, hover, light-level, update-frequency, overflow-block, and overflow-inline media features.
Deprecates all media types except for screen, print, speech, and all.
Makes the syntax more flexible by adding, among other things, the or keyword.

Media Queries
The definition of '@media' in that specification.
Recommendation No change.
CSS Level 2 (Revision 1)
The definition of '@media' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Edge Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
Basic support (all, print, screen) 1.0 (Yes) 1.0 (1.7 or earlier) 6.0 9.2 1.3
speech No support No support No support No support 9.2 No support
Media features 1.0 (Yes) 1.0 (1.7 or earlier) 9.0 9.2 1.3
resolution media feature 29 ? 3.5 (1.9.1) [2]
8.0 (8.0) [3]
? (Yes) ?
display-mode media feature ? No support 47 (47)[1] ? ? ?
Feature Android Edge Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support (all, print, screen) 1.0 (Yes) 1.0 (1.7) (Yes) 9.0 3.1
speech No support No support No support No support 9.0 No support
Media features 1.0 (Yes) 1.0 (1.7) (Yes) 9.0 3.1
resolution media feature ? ? ? ? ? ?
display-mode media feature ? No support 47.0 (47)[1] ? ? ?

[1] Only the fullscreen and browser values of display-mode were supported in 47. minimal-ui and standalone were added in Firefox 57.

[2] Supports <integer> values only.

[3] Supports <number> values, as per the spec.

See also