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Summary

Правило @media в CSS  связывает набор операторов, в CSS блок, ограниченный фигурными скобками, с условием, определенным запросом СМИ. Правило @media может быть использовано не только на верхнем уровне CSS, но и внутри любого фрагмента условной группы-правил.

The @media at-rule can be accessed via the CSS object model interface CSSMediaRule.

Syntax

@media <media-query-list> {
  <group-rule-body>
}

где
<media-query-list> = <media-query>#

где
<media-query> = <media-condition> | [ not | only ]? <media-type> [ and <media-condition-without-or> ]?

где
<media-condition> = <media-not> | <media-and> | <media-or> | <media-in-parens>
<media-type> = <ident>
<media-condition-without-or> = <media-not> | <media-and> | <media-in-parens>

где
<media-not> = not <media-in-parens>
<media-and> = <media-in-parens> [ and <media-in-parens> ]+
<media-or> = <media-in-parens> [ or <media-in-parens> ]+
<media-in-parens> = ( <media-condition> ) | <media-feature> | <general-enclosed>

где
<media-feature> = ( [ <mf-plain> | <mf-boolean> | <mf-range> ] )
<general-enclosed> = [ <function-token> <any-value> ) ] | ( <ident> <any-value> )

где
<mf-plain> = <mf-name> : <mf-value>
<mf-boolean> = <mf-name>
<mf-range> = <mf-name> [ '<' | '>' ]? '='? <mf-value> | <mf-value> [ '<' | '>' ]? '='? <mf-name> | <mf-value> '<' '='? <mf-name> '<' '='? <mf-value> | <mf-value> '>' '='? <mf-name> '>' '='? <mf-value>

где
<mf-name> = <ident>
<mf-value> = <number> | <dimension> | <ident> | <ratio>

A <media-query> is composed of a optional media type and/or a number of media features.

Media types

all
Suitable for all devices.
print
Intended for paged material and for documents viewed on screen in print preview mode. Please consult the section on paged media, and the media section of the Getting Started tutorial for information about formatting issues that are specific to paged media.
screen
Intended primarily for color computer screens.
speech
Intended for speech synthesizers. Note: CSS2 had a similar media type called 'aural' for this purpose. See the appendix on aural style sheets for details.
Note: CSS2.1 and Media Queries 3 defined several additional media types (tty, tv, projection, handheld, braille, embossed, aural), but they were deprecated in Media Queries 4 and shouldn't be used.

Media Features

Each media feature tests for one specific feature of the browser or device.

Name Summary Notes
width Viewport width  
height Viewport height  
aspect-ratio Width-to-height aspect ratio of the viewport  
orientation Orientation of the viewport  
resolution Pixel density of the output device  
scan Scanning process of the output device  
grid Is the device a grid or bitmap?  
update-frequency How quickly (if at all) can the output device modify the appearance of the content Added in Media Queries Level 4
overflow-block How does the output device handle content that overflows the viewport along the block axis? Added in Media Queries Level 4
overflow-inline Can content that overflows the viewport along the inline axis be scrolled? Added in Media Queries Level 4
color Number of bits per color component of the output device, or zero if the device isn't color.  
color-index Number of entries in the output device's color lookup table, or zero if the device does not use such a table.  
display-mode The display mode of the application, as specified in the web app manifest's display member. Defined in the Web App Manifest spec.
monochrome Bits per pixel in the output device's monochrome frame buffer, or 0 if the device is not monochrome.  
inverted-colors Is the user agent or underlying OS inverting colors? Added in Media Queries Level 4
pointer Is the primary input mechanism a pointing device, and if so, how accurate is it? Added in Media Queries Level 4
hover Does the primary input mechanism allow the user to hover over elements? Added in Media Queries Level 4
any-pointer Is any available input mechanism a pointing device, and if so, how accurate is it? Added in Media Queries Level 4
any-hover Does any available input mechanism allow the user to hover over elements? Added in Media Queries Level 4
light-level Current ambient light level Added in Media Queries Level 4
scripting Is scripting (e.g. JavaScript) available? Added in Media Queries Level 4
device-width Width of the rendering surface of the output device Deprecated in Media Queries Level 4
device-height Height of the rendering surface of the output device Deprecated in Media Queries Level 4
device-aspect-ratio Width-to-height aspect ratio of the output device Deprecated in Media Queries Level 4
-webkit-device-pixel-ratio Number of physical device pixels per CSS pixel Nonstandard; WebKit/Blink-specific. If possible, use the resolution media feature instead.
-webkit-transform-3d Are CSS 3D transforms supported? Nonstandard; WebKit/Blink-specific
-webkit-transform-2d Are CSS 2D transforms supported? Nonstandard; WebKit-specific
-webkit-transition Are CSS transitions supported? Nonstandard; WebKit-specific
-webkit-animation Are CSS animations supported? Nonstandard; WebKit-specific

Examples

@media print {
  body { font-size: 10pt }
}
@media screen {
  body { font-size: 13px }
}
@media screen, print {
  body { line-height: 1.2 }
}
@media only screen 
  and (min-device-width: 320px) 
  and (max-device-width: 480px)
  and (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2) {
    body { line-height: 1.4 }
}

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
Web Compatibility Standard
Определение 'CSS Media Queries' в этой спецификации.
Живой стандарт Standardizes the -webkit-device-pixel-ratio and -webkit-transform-3d media features.
CSS Conditional Rules Module Level 3
Определение '@media' в этой спецификации.
Кандидат в рекомендации Defines the basic syntax of the @media rule.
Media Queries Level 4
Определение '@media' в этой спецификации.
Рабочий черновик

Added scripting, pointer, hover, light-level, update-frequency, overflow-block, and overflow-inline media features.
Deprecated all media types except for screen, print, speech, and all.

Media Queries
Определение '@media' в этой спецификации.
Рекомендация No change.
CSS Level 2 (Revision 1)
Определение '@media' в этой спецификации.
Рекомендация Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
Basic support (all, print, screen) 1.0 1.0 (1.7 или ранее) 6.0 9.2 1.3
speech Нет Нет Нет 9.2 Нет
Media features 1.0 1.0 (1.7 или ранее) 9.0 9.2 1.3
display-mode media feature ? 47 (47) ? ? ?
Feature Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support (all, print, screen) 1.0 1.0 (1.7) (Да) 9.0 3.1
speech Нет Нет Нет 9.0 Нет
Media features 1.0 1.0 (1.7) (Да) 9.0 3.1
display-mode media feature ? (Да) ? ? ?

See also

Метки документа и участники

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