scale()

The scale() CSS function defines a transformation that resizes an element on the 2D plane. Because the amount of scaling is defined by a vector, it can resize the horizontal and vertical dimensions at different scales. Its result is a <transform-function> data type.

This scaling transformation is characterized by a two-dimensional vector. Its coordinates define how much scaling is done in each direction. If both coordinates are equal, the scaling is uniform (isotropic) and the aspect ratio of the element is preserved (this is a homothetic transformation).

When a coordinate value is outside the [-1, 1] range, the element grows along that dimension; when inside, it shrinks. If it is negative, the result a point reflection in that dimension. A value of 1 has no effect.

Note: The scale() function only scales in 2D. To scale in 3D, use scale3d() instead.

Syntax

The scale() function is specified with either one or two values, which represent the amount of scaling to be applied in each direction.

scale(sx)

scale(sx, sy)

Values

sx
A <number> representing the abscissa of the scaling vector.
sy
A <number> representing the ordinate of the scaling vector. If not defined, its default value is sx, resulting in a uniform scaling that preserves the element's aspect ratio.
Cartesian coordinates on ℝ2 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ2 Cartesian coordinates on ℝ3 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ3
sx0 0sy sx000sy0001 sx000sy0001 sx0000sy0000100001
[sx 0 0 sy 0 0]

Accessibility concerns

Scaling/zooming animations are problematic for accessibility, as they are a common trigger for certain types of migraine. If you need to include such animations on your website, you should provide a control to allow users to turn off animations, preferrably site-wide.

Also, consider making use of the prefers-reduced-motion media feature — use it to write a media query that will turn off animations if the user has reduced animation specified in their system preferences.

Find out more:

Examples

Scaling the X and Y dimensions together

HTML

<div>Normal</div>
<div class="scaled">Scaled</div>

CSS

div {
  width: 80px;
  height: 80px;
  background-color: skyblue;
}

.scaled {
  transform: scale(0.7); /* Equal to scaleX(0.7) scaleY(0.7) */
  background-color: pink;
}

Result

Scaling X and Y dimensions separately, and translating the origin

HTML

<div>Normal</div>
<div class="scaled">Scaled</div>

CSS

div {
  width: 80px;
  height: 80px;
  background-color: skyblue;
}

.scaled {
  transform: scale(2, 0.5); /* Equal to scaleX(2) scaleY(0.5) */
  transform-origin: left;
  background-color: pink;
}

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Transforms Level 1
The definition of 'scale()' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
<transform-function>Chrome Full support 1Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 3.5
Notes
Full support 3.5
Notes
Notes Firefox 14 removed experimental support for skew(), but it was reintroduced in Firefox 15.
Notes Before Firefox 16, the translation values of matrix() and matrix3d() could be <length>s, in addition to the standard <number>.
IE Full support 9
Notes
Full support 9
Notes
Notes Internet Explorer 9 supports 2D but not 3D transforms. In version 9, mixing 2D and 3D transform functions invalidates the entire property.
Opera Full support 10.5Safari Full support 3.1WebView Android Full support 2Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 11Safari iOS Full support 3.2Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0
3D supportChrome Full support 12Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 10IE Full support 10Opera Full support 15Safari Full support 4WebView Android Full support 3Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 10Opera Android Full support 14Safari iOS Full support 3.2Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0

Legend

Full support  
Full support
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.

See also