The rotate() CSS function defines a transformation that rotates an element around a fixed point on the 2D plane, without deforming it. Its result is a <transform-function> data type.

The fixed point that the element rotates around — mentioned above — is also known as the transform origin. This defaults to the center of the element, but you can set your own custom transform origin using the transform-origin property.


The amount of rotation created by rotate() is specified by an <angle>. If positive, the movement will be clockwise; if negative, it will be counter-clockwise. A rotation by 180° is called point reflection.




Is an <angle> representing the angle of the rotation. The direction of rotation depends on the writing direction. In a left-to-right context, a positive angle denotes a clockwise rotation, a negative angle a counter-clockwise one. In a right-to-left context, a positive angle denotes a counter-clockwise rotation, a negative angle a clockwise one.

Cartesian coordinates on ℝ^2 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ^2 Cartesian coordinates on ℝ^3 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ^3
cos ( a ) - sin ( a ) sin ( a ) cos ( a ) cos ( a ) - sin ( a ) 0 sin ( a ) cos ( a ) 0 0 0 1 cos ( a ) - sin ( a ) 0 sin ( a ) cos ( a ) 0 0 0 1 cos ( a ) - sin ( a ) 0 0 sin ( a ) cos ( a ) 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
[cos(a) sin(a) -sin(a) cos(a) 0 0]


Basic example


<div class="rotated">Rotated</div>


div {
  width: 80px;
  height: 80px;
  background-color: skyblue;

.rotated {
  transform: rotate(45deg); /* Equal to rotateZ(45deg) */
  background-color: pink;


Combining rotation with another transformation

If you want apply multiple transformations to an element, be careful about the order in which you specify your transformations. For example, if you rotate before translating, the translation will be along the new axis of rotation!


<div class="rotate">Rotated</div>
<div class="rotate-translate">Rotated + Translated</div>
<div class="translate-rotate">Translated + Rotated</div>


div {
  position: absolute;
  left: 40px;
  top: 40px;
  width: 100px;
  height: 100px;
  background-color: lightgray;

.rotate {
  background-color: transparent;
  outline: 2px dashed;
  transform: rotate(45deg);

.rotate-translate {
  background-color: pink;
  transform: rotate(45deg) translateX(180px);

.translate-rotate {
  background-color: gold;
  transform: translateX(180px) rotate(45deg);



CSS Transforms Module Level 1 (CSS Transforms 1)
# funcdef-transform-rotate

Browser compatibility

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See also