matrix3d()

The matrix3d() CSS function defines a 3D transformation as a 4x4 homogeneous matrix. Its result is a <transform-function> data type.

Syntax

The matrix3d() function is specified with 16 values. They are described in the column-major order.

matrix3d(a1, b1, c1, d1, a2, b2, c2, d2, a3, b3, c3, d3, a4, b4, c4, d4)

Values

a1 b1 c1 d1 a2 b2 c2 d2 a3 b3 c3 d3
Are <number>s describing the linear transformation.
a4 b4 c4 d4
Are <number>s describing the translation to apply.
Note: Until Firefox 16, Gecko accepted a <length> value for a4, b4 and c4.
Cartesian coordinates on ℝ2 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ2 Cartesian coordinates on ℝ3 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ3
This transformation applies to the 3D space and can't be represented on the plane. A generic 3D affine transformation can't be represented using a Cartesian-coordinate matrix, as translations are not linear transformations. a1a2a3a4b1b2b3b4c1c2c3c4d1d2d3d4

Examples

Cube squashing example

The following example shows a 3D cube created from DOM elements and transforms, which can be hovered/focused to apply a matrix3d() transform to it.

HTML

<section id="example-element" tabindex="0">
  <div class="face front">1</div>
  <div class="face back">2</div>
  <div class="face right">3</div>
  <div class="face left">4</div>
  <div class="face top">5</div>
  <div class="face bottom">6</div>
</section>

CSS

#example-element {
  width: 100px;
  height: 100px;
  transform-style: preserve-3d;
  transition: transform 1.5s;
  transform: rotate3d(1, 1, 1, 30deg);
  margin: 50px auto;
}

#example-element:hover, #example-element:focus {
  transform: rotate3d(1, 1, 1, 30deg) matrix3d(1,0,0,0,0,1,6,0,0,0,1,0,50,100,0,1.1);
}

.face {
  display: flex;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
  width: 100%;
  height: 100%;
  position: absolute;
  backface-visibility: inherit;
  font-size: 60px;
  color: #fff;
}

.front {
    background: rgba(90,90,90,.7);
    transform: translateZ(50px);
}

.back {
    background: rgba(0,210,0,.7);
    transform: rotateY(180deg) translateZ(50px);
}

.right {
  background: rgba(210,0,0,.7);
  transform: rotateY(90deg) translateZ(50px);
}

.left {
  background: rgba(0,0,210,.7);
  transform: rotateY(-90deg) translateZ(50px);
}

.top {
  background: rgba(210,210,0,.7);
  transform: rotateX(90deg) translateZ(50px);
}

.bottom {
  background: rgba(210,0,210,.7);
  transform: rotateX(-90deg) translateZ(50px);
}

Result

Matrix translation and scale example

Another transform3d() example, which implements an animated combined translate and scale.

HTML

<div class="foo">
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit.
Quos quaerat sit soluta, quisquam exercitationem delectus qui unde in facere
necessitatibus aut quia porro dolorem nesciunt enim, at consequuntur aliquam esse?
</div>

CSS

html {
  width: 100%;
}
body {
  height: 100vh;
  /* Centering content */
  display: flex;
  flex-flow: row wrap;
  justify-content: center;
  align-content: center;
  
}
.foo {
  width: 50%;
  padding: 1em;
  color: white;
  background: #ff8c66;
  border: 2px dashed black;
  text-align: center;
  font-family: system-ui, sans-serif;
  font-size: 14px;
   /* Setting up animation for better demonstration */
  animation: MotionScale 2s alternate linear infinite;
}

@keyframes MotionScale {
  from {
    /*
      Identity matrix is used as basis here.
      The matrix below describes the
      following transformations:
        Translates every X point by -50px
        Translates every Y point by -100px
        Translates every Z point by 0
        Scales down by 10%
    */
    transform: matrix3d(
      1,0,0,0,
      0,1,0,0,
      0,0,1,0,
      -50,-100,0,1.1
    );
    
  }
  50% {
    transform: matrix3d(
      1,0,0,0,
      0,1,0,0,
      0,0,1,0,
      0,0,0,0.9
    );
  }
  to {
     transform: matrix3d(
      1,0,0,0,
      0,1,0,0,
      0,0,1,0,
      50,100,0,1.1
    )
  }
}

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Transforms Level 2
The definition of 'matrix3d()' in that specification.
Editor's Draft Initial definition

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
<transform-function>Chrome Full support 1Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 3.5
Notes
Full support 3.5
Notes
Notes Firefox 14 removed experimental support for skew(), but it was reintroduced in Firefox 15.
Notes Before Firefox 16, the translation values of matrix() and matrix3d() could be <length>s, in addition to the standard <number>.
IE Full support 9
Notes
Full support 9
Notes
Notes Internet Explorer 9 supports 2D but not 3D transforms. In version 9, mixing 2D and 3D transform functions invalidates the entire property.
Opera Full support 10.5Safari Full support 3.1WebView Android Full support 2Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 11Safari iOS Full support 3.2Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0
3D supportChrome Full support 12Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 10IE Full support 10Opera Full support 15Safari Full support 4WebView Android Full support 3Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 10Opera Android Full support 14Safari iOS Full support 3.2Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0

Legend

Full support  
Full support
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.

See also