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The @media CSS at-rule can be used to apply part of a style sheet based on the result of one or more media queries.

Note: In JavaScript, @media can be accessed via the CSSMediaRule CSS object model interface.

Syntax

The @media at-rule may be placed at the top level of your code or nested inside any other conditional group at-rule.

/* At the top level of your code */
@media screen and (min-width: 900px) {
  article {
    padding: 1rem 3rem;
  }
}

/* Nested within another conditional at-rule */
@supports (display: flex) {
  @media screen and (min-width: 900px) {
    article {
      display: flex;
    }
  }
}

For a discussion of media query syntax, please see Using media queries.

Formal syntax

@media <media-query-list> {
  <group-rule-body>
}

where
<media-query-list> = <media-query>#

where
<media-query> = <media-condition> | [ not | only ]? <media-type> [ and <media-condition-without-or> ]?

where
<media-condition> = <media-not> | <media-and> | <media-or> | <media-in-parens>
<media-type> = <ident>
<media-condition-without-or> = <media-not> | <media-and> | <media-in-parens>

where
<media-not> = not <media-in-parens>
<media-and> = <media-in-parens> [ and <media-in-parens> ]+
<media-or> = <media-in-parens> [ or <media-in-parens> ]+
<media-in-parens> = ( <media-condition> ) | <media-feature> | <general-enclosed>

where
<media-feature> = ( [ <mf-plain> | <mf-boolean> | <mf-range> ] )
<general-enclosed> = [ <function-token> <any-value> ) ] | ( <ident> <any-value> )

where
<mf-plain> = <mf-name> : <mf-value>
<mf-boolean> = <mf-name>
<mf-range> = <mf-name> [ '<' | '>' ]? '='? <mf-value> | <mf-value> [ '<' | '>' ]? '='? <mf-name> | <mf-value> '<' '='? <mf-name> '<' '='? <mf-value> | <mf-value> '>' '='? <mf-name> '>' '='? <mf-value>

where
<mf-name> = <ident>
<mf-value> = <number> | <dimension> | <ident> | <ratio>

Examples

@media print {
  body { font-size: 10pt; }
}

@media screen {
  body { font-size: 13px; }
}

@media screen, print {
  body { line-height: 1.2; }
}

@media only screen 
  and (min-width: 320px) 
  and (max-width: 480px)
  and (resolution: 150dpi) {
    body { line-height: 1.4; }
}

For more examples, please see Using media queries.

Accessibility concerns

To best accommodate people who zoom in or out to adjust a site's text size, use ems when you need a <length> for your media queries.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Conditional Rules Module Level 3
The definition of '@media' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Defines the basic syntax of the @media rule.
Media Queries Level 4
The definition of '@media' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation

Adds scripting, pointer, hover, light-level, update-frequency, overflow-block, and overflow-inline media features.
Deprecates all media types except for screen, print, speech, and all.
Makes the syntax more flexible by adding, among other things, the or keyword.

Media Queries
The definition of '@media' in that specification.
Recommendation No change.
CSS Level 2 (Revision 1)
The definition of '@media' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

FeatureChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafari
Basic support1 Yes169.21.3
speech media type No No No No9.2 No
Media feature expressions1 Yes199.21.3
any-pointer media feature4112 No1 No289
any-hover media feature4116 No1 No289
display-mode media feature ? No472 ? ? ?
hover media feature38312 No1 No289
resolution media feature29 ?

8

3.54

? Yes ?
pointer media feature4112 No1 ?289
FeatureAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge mobileFirefox for AndroidOpera AndroidiOS SafariSamsung Internet
Basic support1 ? Yes493.1 ?
speech media type No ? No No9 No No
Media feature expressions1 ? Yes493.1 ?
any-pointer media feature414112 No1289.2 ?
any-hover media feature414116 No1289.25.0
display-mode media feature ? ? No472 ? ? ?
hover media feature ?5012 No1289.2 ?
resolution media feature ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
pointer media feature ?5012 No1289.2 ?

1. See bug 1035774.

2. Firefox 47 and later support display-mode values fullscreen and browser. Firefox 57 added support for minimal-ui and standalone values.

3. Before Chrome 41, the implementation was buggy and reported (hover: none) on non-touch-based computers with a mouse/trackpad. See bug 441613.

4. Supports <integer> values only.

See also