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The @viewport CSS at-rule lets you configure the viewport through which the document is viewed. It's primarily used for mobile devices, but is also used by desktop browsers that support features like "snap to edge" (such as Microsoft Edge).

Lengths specified as percentages are calculated relative to the initial viewport, which is the viewport before any user agent or authored styles have had an opportunity to adjust the viewport. This is typically based on the size of the window on desktop browsers that aren't in full screen mode.

On mobile devices (or desktop devices that are in full screen mode), the initial viewport is usually the portion of a device's screen that is available for application use. This may be either the full screen or the full screen area minus areas controlled by the operating system (such as a taskbar) or the application-available screen area (either the full screen or the screen minus any areas owned by the operating system or other applications).

@viewport {
  width: device-width;
}

Syntax

The at-rule contains a set of nested descriptors in a CSS block that is delimited by curly braces.

A zoom factor of 1.0 or 100% corresponds to no zooming. Larger values zoom in. Smaller values zoom out.

Descriptors

Browser support for @viewport is weak at this time, with support being largely available in Internet Explorer and Edge. Even in those browsers, only a small number of descriptors are available. Browsers will ignore @viewport if they don't support it, and will ignore any descriptors that they don't recognize.

min-width
Used in the determination of the width of the viewport when the document is first displayed.
max-width
Used in the determination of the width of the viewport when the document is first displayed.
width
A shorthand descriptor for setting both min-width and max-width.
min-height
Used in the determination of the height of the viewport when the document is first displayed.
max-height
Used in the determination of the height of the viewport when the document is first displayed.
height
A shorthand descriptor for setting both min-height and max-height.
zoom
Sets the initial zoom factor.
min-zoom
Sets the minimum zoom factor.
max-zoom
Sets the maximum zoom factor.
user-zoom
Controls whether or not the user should be able to change the zoom factor.
orientation
Controls the document's orientation.
viewport-fit
Controls the display of the document on non-rectangular displays.

Formal syntax

@viewport {
  <group-rule-body>
}

Examples

@viewport {
  min-width: 640px;
  max-width: 800px;
}

@viewport {
  zoom: 0.75;
  min-zoom: 0.5;
  max-zoom: 0.9;
}

@viewport {
  orientation: landscape;
}

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Round Display Level 1
The definition of '@viewport' in that specification.
Working Draft Defined the viewport-fit descriptor.
CSS Device Adaptation
The definition of '@viewport' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition

Browser compatibility

FeatureChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafari
Basic support291 2 Yes -ms- 3 No410 -ms-

165

11.1 — 15 -o-

No6
height descriptor29 ? No10 -ms-

16

11.1 — 15

No
max-height descriptor29 ? No10 -ms-

16

11.1 — 15

No
max-width descriptor29 ? No10 -ms-

16

11.1 — 15

No
min-height descriptor29 ? No10 -ms-

16

11.1 — 15

No
min-width descriptor29 ? No10 -ms-

16

11.1 — 15

No
orientation descriptor No ? No10 -ms- No ?
viewport-fit descriptor ? ? ? ? ?11
width descriptor29 ? No10 -ms-

16

11.1 — 15

No
zoom descriptor29 ? No10 -ms- 16 No
FeatureAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge mobileFirefox for AndroidOpera AndroidiOS SafariSamsung Internet
Basic support4.429 Yes -ms- 3 No4 ? No6 Yes
height descriptor4.429 ? No

16

11.1 — 15

No Yes
max-height descriptor4.429 ? No

16

11.1 — 15

No Yes
max-width descriptor4.429 ? No

16

11.1 — 15

No Yes
min-height descriptor4.429 ? No

16

11.1 — 15

No Yes
min-width descriptor4.429 ? No ? No Yes
orientation descriptor ? ? ? ?8 -o- ? No
viewport-fit descriptor ? ? ? ? ?11 ?
width descriptor4.429 ? No

16

11.1 — 15

No Yes
zoom descriptor4.461 ? No37 ? No

1. See Chromium bug 235457.

2. From version 29: this feature is behind the --enable-experimental-webkit-features runtime flag and the --enable-viewport runtime flag.

3. This feature is behind the Enable @-ms-viewport rules preference.

4. See Firefox bug 747754.

5. From version 16: this feature is behind the --enable-experimental-webkit-features runtime flag and the --enable-viewport runtime flag.

6. See WebKit bug 95959.

See also

Tag Dokumen dan Kontributor

Terakhir diperbarui oleh: ExE-Boss,