The radial-gradient() CSS function creates an image consisting of a progressive transition between two or more colors that radiate from an origin. Its shape may be a circle or an ellipse. The function's result is an object of the <gradient> data type, which is a special kind of <image>.

As with any gradient, a radial gradient has no intrinsic dimensions; i.e., it has no natural or preferred size, nor a preferred ratio. Its concrete size will match the size of the element it applies to.

To create a radial gradient that repeats so as to fill its container, use the repeating-radial-gradient() function instead.

Because <gradient>s belong to the <image> data type, they can only be used where <image>s can be used. For this reason, radial-gradient() won't work on background-color and other properties that use the <color> data type.

Composition of a radial gradient

A radial gradient is defined by a center point, an ending shape, and two or more color-stop points.

To create a smooth gradient, the radial-gradient() function draws a series of concentric shapes radiating out from the center to the ending shape (and potentially beyond). The ending shape may be either a circle or an ellipse.

Color-stop points are positioned on a virtual gradient ray that extends horizontally from the center towards the right. Percentage-based color-stop positions are relative to the intersection between the ending shape and this gradient ray, which represents 100%. Each shape is a single color determined by the color on the gradient ray it intersects.

Syntax

/* A gradient at the center of its container,
   starting red, changing to blue, and finishing green */
radial-gradient(circle at center, red 0, blue, green 100%)

Values

<position>
The position of the gradient, interpreted in the same way as background-position or transform-origin. If unspecified, it defaults to center.
<shape>
The gradient's shape. The value can be circle (meaning that the gradient's shape is a circle with constant radius) or ellipse (meaning that the shape is an axis-aligned ellipse). If unspecified, it defaults to ellipse.
<extent-keyword>
A keyword describing how big the ending shape must be. The possible keywords are:
Keyword Description
closest-side The gradient's ending shape meets the side of the box closest to its center (for circles) or meets both the vertical and horizontal sides closest to the center (for ellipses).
closest-corner The gradient's ending shape is sized so that it exactly meets the closest corner of the box from its center.
farthest-side Similar to closest-side, except the ending shape is sized to meet the side of the box farthest from its center (or vertical and horizontal sides).
farthest-corner The gradient's ending shape is sized so that it exactly meets the farthest corner of the box from its center.

Note: Early implementations of this function included other keywords (cover and contain) as synonyms of the standard farthest-corner and closest-side, respectively. Use the standard keywords only, as some implementations have already dropped those older variants.

<color-stop>
A color-stop's <color> value, followed by an optional stop position (either a <percentage> or a <length> along the gradient's axis). A percentage of 0%, or a length of 0, represents the center of the gradient; the value 100% represents the intersection of the ending shape with the virtual gradient ray. Percentage values in between are linearly positioned on the gradient ray.

Formal syntax

radial-gradient(
  [ [ circle || <length> ]                         [ at <position> ]? , |
    [ ellipse || [ <length> | <percentage> ]{2} ]  [ at <position> ]? , |
    [ [ circle | ellipse ] || <extent-keyword> ]   [ at <position> ]? , |
    at <position> ,
  ]?
  <color-stop> [ , <color-stop> ]+
)
where <extent-keyword> = closest-corner | closest-side | farthest-corner | farthest-side
  and <color-stop>     = <color> [ <percentage> | <length> ]? 

Examples

Simple gradient

.radial-gradient {
  background-image: radial-gradient(cyan 0%, transparent 20%, salmon 40%);
} 

Non-centered gradient

.radial-gradient {
  background-image: radial-gradient(farthest-corner at 40px 40px,
      #f35 0%, #43e 100%);
}

Note: Please see Using CSS gradients for more examples.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Images Module Level 3
The definition of 'radial-gradients()' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge MobileFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidiOS SafariSamsung Internet
Basic supportChrome Full support 26
Full support 26
Full support Yes
Prefixed
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 16
Notes
Full support 16
Notes
Notes Before Firefox 36, gradients weren't applied on the pre-multiplied color space, leading to shades of grey unexpectedly appearing when used with transparency.
Full support 3.6
Prefixed Notes
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -moz-
Notes Since Firefox 42, the prefixed version of gradients can be disabled by setting layout.css.prefixes.gradients to false.
Full support 49
Prefixed
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Full support 44
Prefixed Disabled
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Disabled From version 44: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE Full support 10
Notes
Full support 10
Notes
Notes Internet Explorer 5.5 through 9.0 supported gradients via a proprietary filter: -ms-filter: progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.Gradient().
Opera Full support 12.1
Full support 12.1
No support 11.6 — 15
Prefixed
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -o-
Full support 15
Prefixed
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Safari Full support 6.1
Full support 6.1
Full support 5.1
Prefixed Notes
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Notes Safari 4 was supporting an experimental -webkit-gradient(radial,…) function. This old outdated syntax is still supported for compatibility purposes.
WebView Android Full support Yes
Full support Yes
Full support Yes
Prefixed
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Chrome Android Full support 26
Full support 26
Full support 18
Prefixed
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Edge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 16
Notes
Full support 16
Notes
Notes Before Firefox 36, gradients weren't applied on the pre-multiplied color space, leading to shades of grey unexpectedly appearing when used with transparency.
Full support 4
Prefixed Notes
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -moz-
Notes Since Firefox 42, the prefixed version of gradients can be disabled by setting layout.css.prefixes.gradients to false.
Full support 49
Prefixed
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Full support 44
Prefixed Disabled
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Disabled From version 44: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
Opera Android Full support 12.1
Full support 12.1
No support 12 — 14
Prefixed
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -o-
Full support 14
Prefixed
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Safari iOS Full support YesSamsung Internet Android Full support Yes
at syntaxChrome Full support 26Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 16
Notes
Full support 16
Notes
Notes Before Firefox 36, gradients weren't applied on the pre-multiplied color space, leading to shades of grey unexpectedly appearing when used with transparency.
Full support 10
Prefixed Notes
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -moz-
Notes Since Firefox 42, the prefixed version of gradients can be disabled by setting layout.css.prefixes.gradients to false.
Full support 49
Prefixed
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Full support 44
Prefixed Disabled
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Disabled From version 44: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
IE Full support 10Opera Full support 15
Full support 15
No support 11.6 — 15
Prefixed
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -o-
Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support YesEdge Mobile Full support YesFirefox Android Full support 16
Full support 16
Full support 10
Prefixed
Prefixed Requires the vendor prefix: -moz-
Opera Android No support NoSafari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android Full support Yes
Interpolation Hints / Gradient MidpointsChrome Full support 40Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 36IE No support NoOpera Full support 27Safari Full support 6.1WebView Android Full support 40Chrome Android Full support 40Edge Mobile No support NoFirefox Android Full support 36Opera Android Full support YesSafari iOS Full support YesSamsung Internet Android Full support Yes

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.
User must explicitly enable this feature.
User must explicitly enable this feature.
Requires a vendor prefix or different name for use.
Requires a vendor prefix or different name for use.

Quantum CSS notes

Gecko used to have a long-standing bug whereby radial gradients like radial-gradient(circle gold,red) would work, even though they shouldn't because of the missing comma between circle and gold. Also, calc() expressions were rejected — causing the value to be invalid — when used as the radius component of a radial-gradient() function (bug 1376019). Firefox's new parallel CSS engine (also known as Quantum CSS or Stylo, released in Firefox 57) fixed these bugs.

See also