# scale3d()

The `scale3d()` CSS function defines a transformation that resizes an element in 3D space. Because the amount of scaling is defined by a vector, it can resize different dimensions at different scales. Its result is a `<transform-function>` data type.

This scaling transformation is characterized by a three-dimensional vector. Its coordinates define how much scaling is done in each direction. If all three coordinates are equal, the scaling is uniform (isotropic) and the aspect ratio of the element is preserved (this is a homothetic transformation).

When a coordinate value is outside the [-1, 1] range, the element grows along that dimension; when inside, it shrinks. If it is negative, the result a point reflection in that dimension. A value of 1 has no effect.

## Syntax

The `scale3d()` function is specified with three values, which represent the amount of scaling to be applied in each direction.

```scale3d(sx, sy, sz)
```

### Values

`sx`
Is a `<number>` representing the abscissa of the scaling vector.
`sy`
Is a `<number>` representing the ordinate of the scaling vector.
`sz`
Is a `<number>` representing the z-component of the scaling vector.
Cartesian coordinates on ℝ2 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ2 Cartesian coordinates on ℝ3 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ3
This transformation applies to the 3D space and can't be represented on the plane. $\left(\begin{array}{cc}sx0& 0\\ 0sy& 0\\ 0& 0& sz\end{array}\right)$ $\left(\begin{array}{ccc}sx0& 0& 0\\ 0sy& 0& 0\\ 0& 0& sz& 0\\ 0& 0& 0& 1\end{array}\right)$

## Examples

### Without changing the origin

#### HTML

```<div>Normal</div>
<div class="scaled">Scaled</div>```

#### CSS

```div {
width: 80px;
height: 80px;
background-color: skyblue;
}

.scaled {
transform: perspective(500px) scale3d(2, 0.7, 0.2) translateZ(100px);
background-color: pink;
}
```

### Translating the origin of the transformation

#### HTML

```<div>Normal</div>
<div class="scaled">Scaled</div>```

#### CSS

```div {
width: 80px;
height: 80px;
background-color: skyblue;
}

.scaled {
transform: perspective(500px) scale3d(2, 0.7, 0.2) translateZ(100px);
transform-origin: left;
background-color: pink;
}
```

## Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Transforms Level 2
The definition of 'scale3d()' in that specification.
Editor's Draft Initial definition

## Browser compatibility

Please see the `<transform-function>` data type for compatibility info.