perspective()

The perspective() CSS function defines a transformation that sets the distance between the user and the z=0 plane, the perspective from which the viewer would be if the 2-dimensional interface were 3-dimensional. Its result is a <transform-function> data type.

The perspective() transform function is part of the transform value applied on the element being transformed. This differs from the perspective and perspective-origin properties which are attached to the parent of a child transformed in 3-dimensional space.

Syntax

The perspective distance used by perspective() is specified by a <length> value, which represents the distance between the user and the z=0 plane, or by none. The z=0 plane is the plane where everything appears in a 2-dimensional view, or the screen. Negative values are syntax errors. Values smaller than 1px (including zero) are clamped to 1px. Values other than none cause elements with positive z positions to appear larger, and elements with negative z positions to appear smaller. Elements with z positions equal to or larger than the perspective value disappear as though they are behind the user. Large values of perspective represent a small transformation; small values of perspective() represent a large transformation; perspective(none) represents perspective from infinite distance and no transformation.

perspective(d)

Values

d

Is a <length> representing the distance from the user to the z=0 plane. If it is 0 or a negative value, no perspective transform is applied.

Cartesian coordinates on ℝ^2 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ^2 Cartesian coordinates on ℝ^3 Homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ^3

This transformation applies to the 3D space and can't be represented on the plane.

This transformation is not a linear transformation in ℝ^3, and can't be represented using a Cartesian-coordinate matrix. 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 / d 1

Examples

HTML

<p>Without perspective:</p>
<div class="no-perspective-box">
  <div class="face front">A</div>
  <div class="face top">B</div>
  <div class="face left">C</div>
</div>

<p>With perspective (9cm):</p>
<div class="perspective-box-far">
  <div class="face front">A</div>
  <div class="face top">B</div>
  <div class="face left">C</div>
</div>

<p>With perspective (4cm):</p>
<div class="perspective-box-closer">
  <div class="face front">A</div>
  <div class="face top">B</div>
  <div class="face left">C</div>
</div>

CSS

.face {
  position: absolute;
  width: 100px;
  height: 100px;
  line-height: 100px;
  font-size: 100px;
  text-align: center;
}

p + div {
  width: 100px;
  height: 100px;
  transform-style: preserve-3d;
  margin-left: 100px;
}
.no-perspective-box {
  transform: rotateX(-15deg) rotateY(30deg);
}

.perspective-box-far {
  transform: perspective(9cm) rotateX(-15deg) rotateY(30deg);
}

.perspective-box-closer {
  transform: perspective(4cm) rotateX(-15deg) rotateY(30deg);
}

.top {
  background-color: skyblue;
  transform: rotateX(90deg) translate3d(0, 0, 50px);
}

.left {
  background-color: pink;
  transform: rotateY(-90deg) translate3d(0, 0, 50px);
}

.front {
  background-color: limegreen;
  transform: translate3d(0, 0, 50px);
}

Result

Specifications

Specification
CSS Transforms Module Level 2 (CSS Transforms 2)
# funcdef-perspective

Browser compatibility

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See also