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    Pseudo-classes

    A CSS pseudo-class is a keyword added to selectors that specifies a special state of the element to be selected. For example :hover will apply a style when the user hovers over the element specified by the selector.

    Pseudo-classes, together with pseudo-elements, let you apply a style to an element not only in relation to the content of the document tree, but also in relation to external factors like the history of the navigator (:visited, for example), the status of its content (like :checked on some form elements), or the position of the mouse (like :hover which lets you know if the mouse is over an element or not).

    Syntax

    selector:pseudo-class {
      property: value;
    } 
    

    Index of standard pseudo-classes

    Specifications

    Specification Status Comment
    Fullscreen API Living Standard Defined :fullscreen.
    WHATWG HTML Living Standard Living Standard No change from HTML5.
    Selectors Level 4 Working Draft Defined :any-link, :local-link, :scope, :active-drop-target, :valid-drop-target, :invalid-drop-target, :current, :past, :future, :placeholder-shown, :user-error, :blank, :nth-match(), :nth-last-match(), :nth-column(), :nth-last-column(), and :matches().
    No significant change for pseudo-classes defined in Selectors Level 3 and HTML5 (though semantic meaning not taken over).
    HTML5 Recommendation Defined the semantic meaning, in the HTML context, of :link, :visited, :active, :enabled, :disabled, :checked, and :indeterminate.
    Defined :default, :valid, :invalid, :in-range, :out-of-range, :required, :optional, :read-only, :read-write, and :dir().
    CSS Basic User Interface Module Level 3 Working Draft Defined :default, :valid, :invalid, :in-range, :out-of-range, :required, :optional, :read-only, and :read-write, but without the associated semantic meaning.
    Selectors Level 3 Recommendation Defined :target, :root, :nth-child(), :nth-last-of-child(), :nth-of-type(), :nth-last-of-type(), :last-child, :first-of-type, :last-of-type, :only-child, :only-of-type, :empty, and :not().
    Defined the syntax of :enabled, :disabled, :checked, and :indeterminate, but without the associated semantic meaning.
    No significant change for pseudo-classes defined in CSS Level 2 (Revision 1).
    CSS Level 2 (Revision 1) Recommendation Defined :lang(), :first-child, :hover, and :focus.
    No significant change for pseudo-classes defined in CSS Level 1.
    CSS Level 1 Recommendation Defined :link, :visited, and :active, but without the associated semantic meaning.

    See Also

    Document Tags and Contributors

    Last updated by: teoli,
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