The :visited CSS pseudo-class represents links that the user has already visited. For privacy reasons, the styles that can be modified using this selector are very limited.

/* Selects any <a> that has been visited */
a:visited {
  color: green;
}

Styles defined by the :visited pseudo-class will be overridden by any subsequent link-related pseudo-class (:link, :hover, or :active) that has at least equal specificity. To style links appropriately, put the :visited rule after the :link rule but before the :hover and :active rules, as defined by the LVHA-order: :link:visited:hover:active.

Styling restrictions

For privacy reasons, browsers strictly limit which styles you can apply using this pseudo-class, and how they can be used:

Note: For more information on these limitations and the reasons behind them, see Privacy and the :visited selector.

Syntax

:visited

Example

Properties that would otherwise have no color or be transparent cannot be modified with :visited. Of the properties that can be set with this pseudo-class, your browser probably has a default value for color and column-rule-color only. Thus, if you want to modify the other properties, you'll need to give them a base value outside the :visited selector.

HTML

<a href="#test-visited-link">Have you visited this link yet?</a><br>
<a href="">You've already visited this link.</a>

CSS

a {
  /* Specify non-transparent defaults to certain properties,
     allowing them to be styled with the :visited state */
  background-color: white;
  border: 1px solid white;
}

a:visited {
  background-color: yellow;
  border-color: hotpink;
  color: hotpink;
}

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
HTML Living Standard
The definition of ':visited' in that specification.
Living Standard  
Selectors Level 4
The definition of ':visited' in that specification.
Working Draft No change.
Selectors Level 3
The definition of ':visited' in that specification.
Recommendation No change.
CSS Level 2 (Revision 1)
The definition of ':visited' in that specification.
Recommendation Lifts the restriction to only apply :visited to the <a> element. Lets browsers restrict its behavior for privacy reasons.
CSS Level 1
The definition of ':visited' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition.

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Edge Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari (WebKit)
Basic support 1.0 (Yes) 1.0 (1.7 or earlier) 3.5 3.5 1.0
Restrictions in CSS properties allowed in a statement using :visited 6 (Yes) 4.0 (2.0) 8 (or earlier) ? 5.0
Feature Android Edge Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Phone Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support 4.4 (Yes) 1.0 (1.0) 11 37 9.3

See also

Document Tags and Contributors

 Last updated by: mfluehr,