The spread syntax allows an expression to be expanded in places where multiple arguments (for function calls) or multiple elements (for array literals) or multiple variables  (for destructuring assignment) are expected.

Syntax

For function calls:

myFunction(...iterableObj);

For array literals:

[...iterableObj, 4, 5, 6];

Examples

Replace apply

Example: it is common to use Function.prototype.apply in cases where you want to use an array as arguments to a function.

function myFunction(x, y, z) { }
var args = [0, 1, 2];
myFunction.apply(null, args);

With spread syntax the above can be written as:

function myFunction(x, y, z) { }
var args = [0, 1, 2];
myFunction(...args);

Any argument in the argument list can use spread syntax and it can be used multiple times.

function myFunction(v, w, x, y, z) { }
var args = [0, 1];
myFunction(-1, ...args, 2, ...[3]);

A more powerful array literal

Example: Without spread syntax, to create a new array using an existing array as one part of it, the array literal syntax is no longer sufficient and imperative code must be used instead using a combination of push, splice, concat, etc. With spread syntax this becomes much more succinct:

var parts = ['shoulders', 'knees']; 
var lyrics = ['head', ...parts, 'and', 'toes']; 
// ["head", "shoulders", "knees", "and", "toes"]

Just like spread for argument lists, ... can be used anywhere in the array literal and it can be used multiple times.

Apply for new

Example: When calling a constructor with new, it's not possible to use an array and apply (apply does a [[Call]] and not a [[Construct]]). However, in this case an array can be used with spread syntax:

var dateFields = [1970, 0, 1];  // 1 Jan 1970
var d = new Date(...dateFields);

Copy an array

var arr = [1, 2, 3];
var arr2 = [...arr]; // like arr.slice()
arr2.push(4); 

// arr2 becomes [1, 2, 3, 4]
// arr remains unaffected

Note: Spread syntax effectively goes one level deep while copying an array. Therefore, it may be unsuitable for copying multidimensional arrays as the following example shows (it's the same with Object.assign() and spread syntax).

var a = [[1], [2], [3]];
var b = [...a];
b.shift().shift(); // 1
// Now array b is: [[2], [3]]

A better way to concatenate arrays

Example: concat is often used to concatenate an array to the end of an existing array. Without spread syntax this is done as:

var arr1 = [0, 1, 2];
var arr2 = [3, 4, 5];
// Append all items from arr2 onto arr1
arr1 = arr1.concat(arr2);

With spread syntax this becomes:

var arr1 = [0, 1, 2];
var arr2 = [3, 4, 5];
arr1 = [...arr1, ...arr2];

Example: unshift is often used to insert an array of values at the start of an existing array.  Without spread syntax this is done as:

var arr1 = [0, 1, 2];
var arr2 = [3, 4, 5];
// Prepend all items from arr2 onto arr1
Array.prototype.unshift.apply(arr1, arr2) // arr1 is now [3, 4, 5, 0, 1, 2]

With spread syntax this becomes:

var arr1 = [0, 1, 2];
var arr2 = [3, 4, 5];
arr1 = [...arr2, ...arr1]; // arr1 is now [3, 4, 5, 0, 1, 2]

Only for iterables

Spread syntax can be applied only to iterable objects:

var obj = {'key1': 'value1'};
var array = [...obj]; // TypeError: obj is not iterable

Rest syntax (parameters)

Rest syntax looks exactly like spread syntax, but is used for destructuring arrays and objects. In a way, rest syntax is the opposite of spread syntax: spread 'expands' an array into its elements, while rest collects multiple elements and 'condenses' them into a single element. See rest parameters.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262) Standard Defined in several sections of the specification: Array Initializer, Argument Lists
ECMAScript Latest Draft (ECMA-262) Draft No changes.

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari (WebKit)
Spread operation in array literals 46 16 (16) Edge/10240 No support 7.1
Spread operation in function calls 46 27 (27) Edge/10240 No support 7.1
Spread operation in destructuring 49 34 (34) No support ? ?
Feature Android Android Webview Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile Chrome for Android
Spread operation in array literals No support 46 16.0 (16) No support No support 8 46
Spread operation in function calls No support 46 27.0 (27) No support No support 8 46
Spread operation in destructuring No support No support 34 (34) ? ? ? No support

See also