Template literals (Template strings)

Template literals are literals delimited with backtick (`) characters, allowing for multi-line strings, for string interpolation with embedded expressions, and for special constructs called tagged templates.

Template literals are sometimes informally called template strings, because they are used most commonly for string interpolation (to create strings by doing substitution of placeholders). However, a tagged template literal may not result in a string; it can be used with a custom tag function to perform whatever operations you want on the different parts of the template literal.


// Untagged, these create strings:
`string text`

`string text line 1
 string text line 2`

`string text ${expression} string text`

// Tagged, this calls the function "tagFunction" with the template as the
// first argument and substitution values as subsequent arguments:
tagFunction`string text ${expression} string text`


Template literals are enclosed by backtick (`) characters instead of double or single quotes.

Along with having normal strings, template literals can also contain other parts called placeholders, which are embedded expressions delimited by a dollar sign and curly braces: ${expression}. The strings and placeholders get passed to a function — either a default function, or a function you supply. The default function (when you don't supply your own) just performs string interpolation to do substitution of the placeholders and then concatenate the parts into a single string.

To supply a function of your own, precede the template literal with a function name; the result is called a tagged template. In that case, the template literal is passed to your tag function, where you can then perform whatever operations you want on the different parts of the template literal.

To escape a backtick in a template literal, put a backslash (\) before the backtick.

`\`` === '`' // --> true

Dollar signs can be escaped as well to prevent interpolation.

`\${1}` === '${1}' // --> true

Multi-line strings

Any newline characters inserted in the source are part of the template literal.

Using normal strings, you would have to use the following syntax in order to get multi-line strings:

console.log('string text line 1\n' +
'string text line 2');
// "string text line 1
// string text line 2"

Using template literals, you can do the same with this:

console.log(`string text line 1
string text line 2`);
// "string text line 1
// string text line 2"

String interpolation

Without template literals, when you want to combine output from expressions with strings, you'd concatenate them using the "+" (plus sign) (addition operator):

let a = 5;
let b = 10;
console.log('Fifteen is ' + (a + b) + ' and\nnot ' + (2 * a + b) + '.');
// "Fifteen is 15 and
// not 20."

That can be hard to read – especially when you have multiple expressions.

With template literals, you can avoid the concatenation operator — and improve the readability of your code — by using placeholders of the form "${expression}" to perform substitutions for embedded expressions:

let a = 5;
let b = 10;
console.log(`Fifteen is ${a + b} and
not ${2 * a + b}.`);
// "Fifteen is 15 and
// not 20."

Nesting templates

In certain cases, nesting a template is the easiest (and perhaps more readable) way to have configurable strings. Within a backtick-delimited template, it is simple to allow inner backticks by using them inside an ${expression} placeholder within the template.

For example, without template literals, if you wanted to return a certain value based on a particular condition, you could do something like the following:

let classes = 'header';
classes += (isLargeScreen() ?
  '' : item.isCollapsed ?
    ' icon-expander' : ' icon-collapser');

With a template literal but without nesting, you could do this:

const classes = `header ${ isLargeScreen() ? '' :
  (item.isCollapsed ? 'icon-expander' : 'icon-collapser') }`;

With nesting of template literals, you can do this:

const classes = `header ${ isLargeScreen() ? '' :
  `icon-${item.isCollapsed ? 'expander' : 'collapser'}` }`;

Tagged templates

A more advanced form of template literals are tagged templates.

Tags allow you to parse template literals with a function. The first argument of a tag function contains an array of string values. The remaining arguments are related to the expressions.

The tag function can then perform whatever operations on these arguments you wish, and return the manipulated string. (Alternatively, it can return something completely different, as described in one of the following examples.)

The name of the function used for the tag can be whatever you want.

let person = 'Mike';
let age = 28;

function myTag(strings, personExp, ageExp) {
  let str0 = strings[0]; // "That "
  let str1 = strings[1]; // " is a "
  let str2 = strings[2]; // "."

  let ageStr;
  if (ageExp > 99){
    ageStr = 'centenarian';
  } else {
    ageStr = 'youngster';

  // We can even return a string built using a template literal
  return `${str0}${personExp}${str1}${ageStr}${str2}`;

let output = myTag`That ${ person } is a ${ age }.`;

// That Mike is a youngster.

Tag functions don't even need to return a string!

function template(strings, ...keys) {
  return (function(...values) {
    let dict = values[values.length - 1] || {};
    let result = [strings[0]];
    keys.forEach(function(key, i) {
      let value = Number.isInteger(key) ? values[key] : dict[key];
      result.push(value, strings[i + 1]);
    return result.join('');

let t1Closure = template`${0}${1}${0}!`;
//let t1Closure = template(["","","","!"],0,1,0);
t1Closure('Y', 'A');                      // "YAY!"

let t2Closure = template`${0} ${'foo'}!`;
//let t2Closure = template([""," ","!"],0,"foo");
t2Closure('Hello', {foo: 'World'}); // "Hello World!"

let t3Closure = template`I'm ${'name'}. I'm almost ${'age'} years old.`;
//let t3Closure = template(["I'm ", ". I'm almost ", " years old."], "name", "age");
t3Closure('foo', {name: 'MDN', age: 30}); //"I'm MDN. I'm almost 30 years old."
t3Closure({name: 'MDN', age: 30}); //"I'm MDN. I'm almost 30 years old."

Raw strings

The special raw property, available on the first argument to the tag function, allows you to access the raw strings as they were entered, without processing escape sequences.

function tag(strings) {

tag`string text line 1 \n string text line 2`;
// logs "string text line 1 \n string text line 2" ,
// including the two characters '\' and 'n'

In addition, the String.raw() method exists to create raw strings—just like the default template function and string concatenation would create.

let str = String.raw`Hi\n${2+3}!`;
// "Hi\\n5!"

// 6

// "H,i,\\,n,5,!"

Tagged templates and escape sequences

ES2016 behavior

As of ECMAScript 2016, tagged templates conform to the rules of the following escape sequences:

  • Unicode escapes started by "\u", for example \u00A9
  • Unicode code point escapes indicated by "\u{}", for example \u{2F804}
  • Hexadecimal escapes started by "\x", for example \xA9
  • Octal literal escapes started by "\0o" and followed by one or more digits, for example \0o251

This means that a tagged template like the following is problematic, because, per ECMAScript grammar, a parser looks for valid Unicode escape sequences, but finds malformed syntax:

// Throws in older ECMAScript versions (ES2016 and earlier)
// SyntaxError: malformed Unicode character escape sequence

ES2018 revision of illegal escape sequences

Tagged templates should allow the embedding of languages (for example DSLs, or LaTeX), where other escapes sequences are common. The ECMAScript proposal Template Literal Revision (integrated in the ECMAScript 2018 standard) removed the syntax restriction of ECMAScript escape sequences from tagged templates.

However, illegal escape sequences must still be represented in the "cooked" representation. They will show up as undefined element in the "cooked" array:

function latex(str) {
  return { "cooked": str[0], "raw": str.raw[0] }


// { cooked: undefined, raw: "\\unicode" }

Note that the escape sequence restriction is only dropped from tagged templates—not from untagged template literals:

let bad = `bad escape sequence: \unicode`;


ECMAScript Language Specification
# sec-template-literals

Browser compatibility

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See also