The Object.assign() method is used to copy the values of all enumerable own properties from one or more source objects to a target object. It will return the target object.

Syntax

Object.assign(target, ...sources)

Parameters

target
The target object.
sources
The source object(s).

Return value

The target object.

Description

Properties in the target object will be overwritten by properties in the sources if they have the same key.  Later sources' properties will similarly overwrite earlier ones.  

The Object.assign() method only copies enumerable and own properties from a source object to a target object. It uses [[Get]] on the source and [[Set]] on the target, so it will invoke getters and setters. Therefore it assigns properties versus just copying or defining new properties. This may make it unsuitable for merging new properties into a prototype if the merge sources contain getters. For copying property definitions, including their enumerability, into prototypes Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor() and Object.defineProperty() should be used instead.

Both String and Symbol properties are copied.

In case of an error, for example if a property is non-writable, a TypeError will be raised, and the target object remains unchanged.

Note that Object.assign() does not throw on null or undefined source values.

Examples

Cloning an object

var obj = { a: 1 };
var copy = Object.assign({}, obj);
console.log(copy); // { a: 1 }

Warning for Deep Clone

For deep cloning, we need to use other alternatives. This is because Object.assign() copies the property reference when the property being assigned is an object.

function test() {
  let a = { b: {c:4} , d: { e: {f:1}} }
  let g = Object.assign({},a)
  let h = JSON.parse(JSON.stringify(a));
  console.log(g.d) // { e: { f: 1 } }
  g.d.e = 32
  console.log('g.d.e set to 32.') // g.d.e set to 32.
  console.log(g) // { b: { c: 4 }, d: { e: 32 } }
  console.log(a) // { b: { c: 4 }, d: { e: 32 } }
  console.log(h) // { b: { c: 4 }, d: { e: { f: 1 } } }
  h.d.e = 54
  console.log('h.d.e set to 54.') // h.d.e set to 54.
  console.log(g) // { b: { c: 4 }, d: { e: 32 } }
  console.log(a) // { b: { c: 4 }, d: { e: 32 } }
  console.log(h) // { b: { c: 4 }, d: { e: 54 } }
}
test();

Merging objects

var o1 = { a: 1 };
var o2 = { b: 2 };
var o3 = { c: 3 };

var obj = Object.assign(o1, o2, o3);
console.log(obj); // { a: 1, b: 2, c: 3 }
console.log(o1);  // { a: 1, b: 2, c: 3 }, target object itself is changed.

Merging objects with same properties

var o1 = { a: 1, b: 1, c: 1 };
var o2 = { b: 2, c: 2 };
var o3 = { c: 3 };

var obj = Object.assign({}, o1, o2, o3);
console.log(obj); // { a: 1, b: 2, c: 3 }

The properties are overwritten by other objects that have the same properties later in the parameters order.

Copying symbol-typed properties

var o1 = { a: 1 };
var o2 = { [Symbol('foo')]: 2 };

var obj = Object.assign({}, o1, o2);
console.log(obj); // { a : 1, [Symbol("foo")]: 2 } (cf. bug 1207182 on Firefox)
Object.getOwnPropertySymbols(obj); // [Symbol(foo)]

Properties on the prototype chain and non-enumerable properties cannot be copied

var obj = Object.create({ foo: 1 }, { // foo is on obj's prototype chain.
  bar: {
    value: 2  // bar is a non-enumerable property.
  },
  baz: {
    value: 3,
    enumerable: true  // baz is an own enumerable property.
  }
});

var copy = Object.assign({}, obj);
console.log(copy); // { baz: 3 }

Primitives will be wrapped to objects

var v1 = 'abc';
var v2 = true;
var v3 = 10;
var v4 = Symbol('foo');

var obj = Object.assign({}, v1, null, v2, undefined, v3, v4); 
// Primitives will be wrapped, null and undefined will be ignored.
// Note, only string wrappers can have own enumerable properties.
console.log(obj); // { "0": "a", "1": "b", "2": "c" }

Exceptions will interrupt the ongoing copying task

var target = Object.defineProperty({}, 'foo', {
  value: 1,
  writable: false
}); // target.foo is a read-only property

Object.assign(target, { bar: 2 }, { foo2: 3, foo: 3, foo3: 3 }, { baz: 4 });
// TypeError: "foo" is read-only
// The Exception is thrown when assigning target.foo

console.log(target.bar);  // 2, the first source was copied successfully.
console.log(target.foo2); // 3, the first property of the second source was copied successfully.
console.log(target.foo);  // 1, exception is thrown here.
console.log(target.foo3); // undefined, assign method has finished, foo3 will not be copied.
console.log(target.baz);  // undefined, the third source will not be copied either.

Copying accessors

var obj = {
  foo: 1,
  get bar() {
    return 2;
  }
};

var copy = Object.assign({}, obj); 
console.log(copy); 
// { foo: 1, bar: 2 }, the value of copy.bar is obj.bar's getter's return value.

// This is an assign function that copies full descriptors
function completeAssign(target, ...sources) {
  sources.forEach(source => {
    let descriptors = Object.keys(source).reduce((descriptors, key) => {
      descriptors[key] = Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(source, key);
      return descriptors;
    }, {});
    // by default, Object.assign copies enumerable Symbols too
    Object.getOwnPropertySymbols(source).forEach(sym => {
      let descriptor = Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor(source, sym);
      if (descriptor.enumerable) {
        descriptors[sym] = descriptor;
      }
    });
    Object.defineProperties(target, descriptors);
  });
  return target;
}

var copy = completeAssign({}, obj);
console.log(copy);
// { foo:1, get bar() { return 2 } }

Polyfill

This polyfill doesn't support symbol properties, since ES5 doesn't have symbols anyway:

if (typeof Object.assign != 'function') {
  Object.assign = function (target, varArgs) { // .length of function is 2
    'use strict';
    if (target == null) { // TypeError if undefined or null
      throw new TypeError('Cannot convert undefined or null to object');
    }

    var to = Object(target);

    for (var index = 1; index < arguments.length; index++) {
      var nextSource = arguments[index];

      if (nextSource != null) { // Skip over if undefined or null
        for (var nextKey in nextSource) {
          // Avoid bugs when hasOwnProperty is shadowed
          if (Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(nextSource, nextKey)) {
            to[nextKey] = nextSource[nextKey];
          }
        }
      }
    }
    return to;
  };
}

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Object.assign' in that specification.
Standard Initial definition.
ECMAScript 2017 Draft (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Object.assign' in that specification.
Draft  

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Edge Opera Safari
Basic support 45 34 (34) No support (Yes) 32 9
Feature Android Chrome for Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support No support 45 34.0 (34) No support No support (Yes)

See also