The import statement is used to import bindings which are exported by another module.

This feature is only just beginning to be implemented in browsers natively at this time. It is implemented in many transpilers, such as TypeScript and Babel, and bundlers such as Rollup and Webpack.

Syntax

import defaultExport from "module-name";
import * as name from "module-name";
import { export } from "module-name";
import { export as alias } from "module-name";
import { export1 , export2 } from "module-name";
import { export1 , export2 as alias2 , [...] } from "module-name";
import defaultExport, { export [ , [...] ] } from "module-name";
import defaultExport, * as name from "module-name";
import "module-name";
defaultExport
Name that will refer to the default export from the module.
module-name
The module to import from. This is often a relative or absolute path name to the .js file containing the module, excluding the .js extension. Certain bundlers may permit or require the use of the extension; check your environment. Only single quotes and double quotes Strings are allowed.
name
Name of the module object that will be used as a kind of namespace when referring to the imports.
export, exportN
Name of the exports to be imported.
alias, aliasN
Names that will refer to the named imports.

Description

The name parameter is the name of the "module object" which will be used as a kind of namespace to refer to the exports. The export parameters specify individual named exports, while the import * as name syntax imports all of them. Below are examples to clarify the syntax.

Import an entire module's contents

This inserts myModule into the current scope, containing all the exports from the module in the file located in /modules/my-module.js.

import * as myModule from '/modules/my-module.js';

Here, accessing the exports means using the module name ("myModule" in this case) as a namespace. For example, if the module imported above includes an export doAllTheAmazingThings(), you would call it like this:

myModule.doAllTheAmazingThings();

Import a single export from a module

Given an object or value named myExport which has been exported from the module my-module either implicitly (because the entire module is exported) or explicitly (using the export statement), this inserts myExport into the current scope.

import {myExport} from '/modules/my-module.js';

Import multiple exports from module

This inserts both foo and bar into the current scope.

import {foo, bar} from '/modules/my-module.js';

Import an export with a more convenient alias

You can rename an export when importing it. For example, this inserts shortName into the current scope.

import {reallyReallyLongModuleExportName as shortName}
  from '/modules/my-module.js';

Rename multiple exports during import

Import multiple exports from a module with convenient aliases.

import {
  reallyReallyLongModuleExportName as shortName,
  anotherLongModuleName as short
} from '/modules/my-module.js';

Import a module for its side effects only

Import an entire module for side effects only, without importing anything. This runs the module's global code, but doesn't actually import any values.

import '/modules/my-module.js';

Importing defaults

It is possible to have a default export (whether it is an object, a function, a class, etc.). The import statement may then be used to import such defaults.

The simplest version directly imports the default:

import myDefault from '/modules/my-module.js';

It is also possible to use the default syntax with the ones seen above (namespace imports or named imports). In such cases, the default import will have to be declared first. For instance:

import myDefault, * as myModule from '/modules/my-module.js';
// myModule used as a namespace

or

import myDefault, {foo, bar} from '/modules/my-module.js';
// specific, named imports

Examples

Importing from a secondary module to assist in processing an AJAX JSON request.

The module: file.js

function getJSON(url, callback) {
  let xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
  xhr.onload = function () { 
    callback(this.responseText) 
  };
  xhr.open('GET', url, true);
  xhr.send();
}

export function getUsefulContents(url, callback) {
  getJSON(url, data => callback(JSON.parse(data)));
}

The main program: main.js

import { getUsefulContents } from '/modules/file.js';

getUsefulContents('http://www.example.com',
    data => { doSomethingUseful(data); });

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Imports' in that specification.
Standard Initial definition.
ECMAScript Latest Draft (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Imports' in that specification.
Living Standard  

Browser compatibility

FeatureChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafari
Basic support61

16

151

542 No4710.1
FeatureAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidEdge mobileFirefox for AndroidIE mobileOpera AndroidiOS Safari
Basic support No61 Yes542 No4710.1

1. From version 15: this feature is behind the Experimental JavaScript Features preference.

2. From version 54: this feature is behind the dom.moduleScripts.enabled preference. To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.

See also