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    instanceof

    Summary

    The instanceof operator tests whether an object has in its prototype chain the prototype property of a constructor.

    Syntax

    object instanceof constructor

    Parameters

    object
    The object to test.
    constructor
    Function to test against

    Description

    The instanceof operator tests presence of constructor.prototype in object prototype chain.

    // defining constructors
    function C(){}
    function D(){}
    
    var o = new C();
    
    // true, because: Object.getPrototypeOf(o) === C.prototype
    o instanceof C;
    
    // false, because D.prototype is nowhere in o's prototype chain
    o instanceof D;
    
    o instanceof Object; // true, because:
    C.prototype instanceof Object // true
    
    C.prototype = {};
    var o2 = new C();
    
    o2 instanceof C; // true
    
    // false, because C.prototype is nowhere in
    // o's prototype chain anymore
    o instanceof C; 
    
    D.prototype = new C(); // use inheritance
    var o3 = new D();
    o3 instanceof D; // true
    o3 instanceof C; // true
    

    Note that if the value of an instanceof test can change based on changes to the prototype property of constructors, it cannot be changed by changing an object prototype, because changing an object prototype is not possible in standard ECMAScript. It is however possible using the non-standard __proto__ pseudo-property.

    instanceof and multiple context (e.g. frames or windows)

    Different scope have different execution environments. This means that they have different built-ins (different global object, different constructors, etc.). This may result in unexpected results. For instance, [] instanceof window.frames[0].Array will return false, because Array.prototype !== window.frames[0].Array and arrays inherit from the former. This may not make sense at first but when you start dealing with multiple frames or windows in your script and pass objects from one context to another via functions, this will be a valid and strong issue. For instance, you can securely check if a given object is in fact an Array using Array.isArray(myObj)

    Note for Mozilla developers:
    In code using XPCOM instanceof has special effect: obj instanceof xpcomInterface (e.g. Components.interfaces.nsIFile) calls obj.QueryInterface(xpcomInterface) and returns true if QueryInterface succeeded. A side effect of such call is that you can use xpcomInterface's properties on obj after a successful instanceof test. Unlike standard JavaScript globals, the test obj instanceof xpcomInterface works as expected even if obj is from a different scope.

    Examples

    Example: Demonstrating that String and Date are of type Object

    The following code uses instanceof to demonstrate that String and Date objects are also of type Object (they are derived from Object).

    var myString = new String();
    var myDate = new Date();
    
    myString instanceof String; // returns true
    myString instanceof Object; // returns true
    myString instanceof Date;   // returns false
    
    myDate instanceof Date;     // returns true
    myDate instanceof Object;   // returns true
    myDate instanceof String;   // returns false
    

    Example: Demonstrating that mycar is of type Car and type Object

    The following code creates an object type Car and an instance of that object type, mycar. The instanceof operator demonstrates that the mycar object is of type Car and of type Object.

    function Car(make, model, year) {
      this.make = make;
      this.model = model;
      this.year = year;
    }
    var mycar = new Car("Honda", "Accord", 1998);
    var a = mycar instanceof Car;    // returns true
    var b = mycar instanceof Object; // returns true
    

    Specifications

    Specification Status Comment
    ECMAScript 1st Edition. Standard Initial definition. Implemented in JavaScript 1.4
    The instanceof operator in ECMAScript 5.1 (ECMA-262) Standard  
    Relational Operators in ECMAScript 6 (ECMA-262) Draft  

    Browser compatibility

    Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
    Basic support (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)
    Feature Android Chrome for Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
    Basic support (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)

    See also

    Document Tags and Contributors

    Last updated by: fscholz,
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