The encodeURIComponent() function encodes a URI by replacing each instance of certain characters by one, two, three, or four escape sequences representing the UTF-8 encoding of the character (will only be four escape sequences for characters composed of two surrogate characters). Compared to encodeURI(), this function encodes more characters, including those that are part of the URI syntax.

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A string to be encoded as a URI component (a path, query string, fragment, etc.). Other values are converted to strings.

Return value

A new string representing the provided uriComponent encoded as a URI component.



Thrown if uriComponent contains a lone surrogate.


encodeURIComponent() is a function property of the global object.

encodeURIComponent() uses the same encoding algorithm as described in encodeURI(). It escapes all characters except:

A–Z a–z 0–9 - _ . ! ~ * ' ( )

Compared to encodeURI(), encodeURIComponent() escapes a larger set of characters. Use encodeURIComponent() on user-entered fields from forms POST'd to the server — this will encode & symbols that may inadvertently be generated during data entry for character references or other characters that require encoding/decoding. For example, if a user writes Jack & Jill, without encodeURIComponent(), the ampersand could be interpreted on the server as the start of a new field and jeopardize the integrity of the data.

For application/x-www-form-urlencoded, spaces are to be replaced by +, so one may wish to follow a encodeURIComponent() replacement with an additional replacement of %20 with +.


The following example provides the special encoding required within UTF-8 Content-Disposition and Link server response header parameters (e.g., UTF-8 filenames):

const fileName = "my file(2).txt";
const header = `Content-Disposition: attachment; filename*=UTF-8''${encodeRFC5987ValueChars(

// "Content-Disposition: attachment; filename*=UTF-8''my%20file%282%29.txt"

function encodeRFC5987ValueChars(str) {
  return (
      // The following creates the sequences %27 %28 %29 %2A (Note that
      // the valid encoding of "*" is %2A, which necessitates calling
      // toUpperCase() to properly encode). Although RFC3986 reserves "!",
      // RFC5987 does not, so we do not need to escape it.
        (c) => `%${c.charCodeAt(0).toString(16).toUpperCase()}`,
      // The following are not required for percent-encoding per RFC5987,
      // so we can allow for a little better readability over the wire: |`^
      .replace(/%(7C|60|5E)/g, (str, hex) =>
        String.fromCharCode(parseInt(hex, 16)),

Encoding for RFC3986

The more recent RFC3986 reserves !, ', (, ), and *, even though these characters have no formalized URI delimiting uses. The following function encodes a string for RFC3986-compliant URL component format. It also encodes [ and ], which are part of the IPv6 URI syntax. An RFC3986-compliant encodeURI implementation should not escape them, which is demonstrated in the encodeURI() example.

function encodeRFC3986URIComponent(str) {
  return encodeURIComponent(str).replace(
    (c) => `%${c.charCodeAt(0).toString(16).toUpperCase()}`,

Encoding a lone surrogate throws

A URIError will be thrown if one attempts to encode a surrogate which is not part of a high-low pair. For example:

// High-low pair OK
encodeURIComponent("\uD800\uDFFF"); // "%F0%90%8F%BF"

// Lone high-surrogate code unit throws "URIError: malformed URI sequence"

// Lone high-surrogate code unit throws "URIError: malformed URI sequence"

You can use String.prototype.toWellFormed(), which replaces lone surrogates with the Unicode replacement character (U+FFFD), to avoid this error. You can also use String.prototype.isWellFormed() to check if a string contains lone surrogates before passing it to encodeURIComponent().


ECMAScript Language Specification
# sec-encodeuricomponent-uricomponent

Browser compatibility

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See also