const

Constants are block-scoped, much like variables declared using the let keyword. The value of a constant can't be changed through reassignment, and it can't be redeclared.

Syntax

const name1 = value1 [, name2 = value2 [, ... [, nameN = valueN]]];
nameN
The constant's name, which can be any legal identifier.
valueN
The constant's value. This can be any legal expression, including a function expression.

 The Destructuring Assignment syntax can also be used to declare variables.

const { bar } =foo; // where foo={bar:10, baz:12}; 
/* This creates a constant with the name 'bar' which has a value of 10 */

Description

This declaration creates a constant whose scope can be either global or local to the block in which it is declared. Global constants do not become properties of the window object, unlike var variables.

An initializer for a constant is required. You must specify its value in the same statement in which it's declared. (This makes sense, given that it can't be changed later.)

The const declaration creates a read-only reference to a value. It does not mean the value it holds is immutable—just that the variable identifier cannot be reassigned. For instance, in the case where the content is an object, this means the object's contents (e.g., its properties) can be altered.

All the considerations about the "temporal dead zone" apply to both let and const.

A constant cannot share its name with a function or a variable in the same scope.

Examples

Basic const usage

Constants can be declared with uppercase or lowercase, but a common convention is to use all-uppercase letters.

// define MY_FAV as a constant and give it the value 7
const MY_FAV = 7;

// this will throw an error - Uncaught TypeError: Assignment to constant variable.
MY_FAV = 20;

// MY_FAV is 7
console.log('my favorite number is: ' + MY_FAV);

// trying to redeclare a constant throws an error
// Uncaught SyntaxError: Identifier 'MY_FAV' has already been declared
const MY_FAV = 20;

// the name MY_FAV is reserved for constant above, so this will fail too
var MY_FAV = 20;

// this throws an error too
let MY_FAV = 20;

Block scoping

It's important to note the nature of block scoping.

if (MY_FAV === 7) { 
  // this is fine and creates a block scoped MY_FAV variable 
  // (works equally well with let to declare a block scoped non const variable)
  let MY_FAV = 20;

  // MY_FAV is now 20
  console.log('my favorite number is ' + MY_FAV);

  // this gets hoisted into the global context and throws an error
  var MY_FAV = 20;
}

// MY_FAV is still 7
console.log('my favorite number is ' + MY_FAV);

const needs to be initialized

// throws an error
// Uncaught SyntaxError: Missing initializer in const declaration

const FOO;

const in objects and arrays

const also works on objects and arrays.

const MY_OBJECT = {'key': 'value'};

// Attempting to overwrite the object throws an error
// Uncaught TypeError: Assignment to constant variable.
MY_OBJECT = {'OTHER_KEY': 'value'};

// However, object keys are not protected,
// so the following statement is executed without problem
MY_OBJECT.key = 'otherValue'; // Use Object.freeze() to make object immutable

// The same applies to arrays
const MY_ARRAY = [];
// It's possible to push items into the array
MY_ARRAY.push('A'); // ["A"]
// However, assigning a new array to the variable throws an error 
// Uncaught TypeError: Assignment to constant variable.
MY_ARRAY = ['B'];

Specifications

Specification
ECMAScript (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Let and Const Declarations' in that specification.

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobileServer
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung InternetNode.js
constChrome Full support 21Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 36
Notes
Full support 36
Notes
Notes Prior to Firefox 13, const is implemented, but re-assignment is not failing.
Notes Prior to Firefox 46, a TypeError was thrown on redeclaration instead of a SyntaxError.
IE Full support 11Opera Full support 9Safari Full support 5.1WebView Android Full support ≤37Chrome Android Full support 25Firefox Android Full support 36
Notes
Full support 36
Notes
Notes Prior to Firefox 13, const is implemented, but re-assignment is not failing.
Notes Prior to Firefox 46, a TypeError was thrown on redeclaration instead of a SyntaxError.
Opera Android Full support 10.1Safari iOS Full support 6Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.5nodejs Full support 6.0.0

Legend

Full support  
Full support
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.

See also