المنشئ (constructor)

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الـ constructor  هي ميثود خاصة لإنشاء وتهيئة الاوبجكت(كائن) داخل (فئة)class.

بناء الجملة

constructor([arguments]) { ... }

الوصف

يمكننا إستخدام تلك الميثود لمرة واحده فقط ، وفي حال إستخدمنا constructor ﻷكثر من مرة في نفس الفئة الـ class سيحدث SyntaxError إيرور .

A constructor can use the super keyword to call the constructor of a parent class.

إذا لم تحدد ميثود إنشاء سيتم تحديد منشئ بشكل تلقائي.


If you do not specify a constructor method, a default constructor is used.

أمثلة

إٍستخدام الميثود (اسلوب) الـconstructor

ذلك الكود تم أخذه ولصقة من classes sample (live demo)

class Square extends Polygon {
  constructor(length) {
    // Here, it calls the parent class' constructor with lengths
    // provided for the Polygon's width and height
    super(length, length);
    // Note: In derived classes, super() must be called before you
    // can use 'this'. Leaving this out will cause a reference error.
    this.name = 'Square';
  }

  get area() {
    return this.height * this.width;
  }

  set area(value) {
    this.area = value;
  } 
}

مثال آخر

إنظر إلى ذلك الكود

class Polygon {
    constructor() {
        this.name = "Polygon";
    }
}

class Square extends Polygon {
    constructor() {
        super();
    }
}

class Rectangle {}

Object.setPrototypeOf(Square.prototype, Rectangle.prototype);

console.log(Object.getPrototypeOf(Square.prototype) === Polygon.prototype); //false
console.log(Object.getPrototypeOf(Square.prototype) === Rectangle.prototype); //true

let newInstance = new Square();
console.log(newInstance.name); //Polygon

هنا البروتوتيب فئة الـ Square تغيرت ولكن الكونستركتور (المنشئ) مبني على فئة الـPolygon والتي تطلب عندما نقوم بإنشاء حالة مماثلة للـ Square مرة أخرى

الإنشاء الإفتراضي

ذكرنا سابقا أنه في حال عدم تحديدك لكونستركتور (منشئ) سيتم تحديد الكونستركتور بشكل إفتراضي ، وبالنسبة للكلاسز (الفئات) الاولية يكون الكونستركتور الخاص بها كما يلي :-

constructor() {}

أما الفئات المشتقة فتكون بالشكل التالي

constructor(...args) {
  super(...args);
}

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Constructor Method' in that specification.
Standard Initial definition.
ECMAScript (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Constructor Method' in that specification.
Living Standard  

دعم المتصفحات

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobileServer
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung InternetNode.js
constructorChrome Full support 49
Full support 49
No support 42 — 49
Notes
Notes Strict mode is required.
No support 42 — 49
Disabled
Disabled From version 42 until version 49 (exclusive): this feature is behind the Experimental JavaScript preference (needs to be set to Enabled). To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Edge Full support 13Firefox Full support 45IE No support NoOpera Full support 36
Full support 36
No support 29 — 36
Notes
Notes Strict mode is required.
No support 29 — 36
Disabled
Disabled From version 29 until version 36 (exclusive): this feature is behind the Experimental JavaScript preference (needs to be set to Enabled).
Safari Full support 9WebView Android Full support 49
Full support 49
No support 42 — 49
Notes
Notes Strict mode is required.
Chrome Android Full support 49
Full support 49
No support 42 — 49
Notes
Notes Strict mode is required.
No support 42 — 49
Disabled
Disabled From version 42 until version 49 (exclusive): this feature is behind the Experimental JavaScript preference (needs to be set to Enabled). To change preferences in Chrome, visit chrome://flags.
Firefox Android Full support 45Opera Android Full support 36
Full support 36
No support 29 — 36
Notes
Notes Strict mode is required.
No support 29 — 36
Disabled
Disabled From version 29 until version 36 (exclusive): this feature is behind the Experimental JavaScript preference (needs to be set to Enabled).
Safari iOS Full support 9Samsung Internet Android Full support 5.0
Full support 5.0
No support 4.0 — 5.0
Notes
Notes Strict mode is required.
nodejs Full support 6.0.0
Full support 6.0.0
Full support 4.0.0
Disabled
Disabled From version 4.0.0: this feature is behind the --use_strict runtime flag.
Full support 5.0.0
Disabled
Disabled From version 5.0.0: this feature is behind the --harmony runtime flag.

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.
User must explicitly enable this feature.
User must explicitly enable this feature.

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