Document

The Document interface represents any web page loaded in the browser and serves as an entry point into the web page's content, which is the DOM tree.

The DOM tree includes elements such as <body> and <table>, among many others. It provides functionality globally to the document, like how to obtain the page's URL and create new elements in the document.

EventTarget Node Document

The Document interface describes the common properties and methods for any kind of document. Depending on the document's type (e.g. HTML, XML, SVG, …), a larger API is available: HTML documents, served with the "text/html" content type, also implement the HTMLDocument interface, whereas XML and SVG documents implement the XMLDocument interface.

Constructor

Document()

Creates a new Document object.

Instance properties

This interface also inherits from the Node and EventTarget interfaces.

Document.activeElement Read only

Returns the Element that currently has focus.

Document.adoptedStyleSheets

Add an array of constructed stylesheets to be used by the document. These stylesheets may also be shared with shadow DOM subtrees of the same document.

Document.body

Returns the <body> or <frameset> node of the current document.

Document.characterSet Read only

Returns the character set being used by the document.

Document.childElementCount Read only

Returns the number of child elements of the current document.

Document.children Read only

Returns the child elements of the current document.

Document.compatMode Read only

Indicates whether the document is rendered in quirks or strict mode.

Document.contentType Read only

Returns the Content-Type from the MIME Header of the current document.

Document.currentScript Read only

Returns the <script> element whose script is currently being processed and isn't a JavaScript module.

Document.doctype Read only

Returns the Document Type Definition (DTD) of the current document.

Document.documentElement Read only

Returns the Element that is a direct child of the document. For HTML documents, this is normally the HTMLHtmlElement object representing the document's <html> element.

Document.documentURI Read only

Returns the document location as a string.

Document.embeds Read only

Returns an HTMLCollection of the embedded <embed> elements in the document.

Document.featurePolicy Experimental Read only

Returns the FeaturePolicy interface with the feature policies applied to the document.

Document.firstElementChild Read only

Returns the first child element of the current document.

Document.fonts

Returns the FontFaceSet interface of the current document.

Document.forms Read only

Returns an HTMLCollection of the <form> elements in the document.

Document.fragmentDirective Read only Experimental

Returns the FragmentDirective for the current document.

Document.fullscreenElement Read only

The element that's currently in full screen mode for this document.

Document.head Read only

Returns the <head> element of the current document.

Document.hidden Read only

Returns a Boolean value indicating if the page is considered hidden or not.

Document.images Read only

Returns an HTMLCollection of the images in the document.

Document.implementation Read only

Returns the DOM implementation associated with the current document.

Document.lastElementChild Read only

Returns the last child element of the current document.

Returns an HTMLCollection of the hyperlinks in the document.

Document.pictureInPictureElement Read only

Returns the Element currently being presented in picture-in-picture mode in this document.

Document.pictureInPictureEnabled Read only

Returns true if the picture-in-picture feature is enabled.

Document.plugins Read only

Returns an HTMLCollection of the available plugins.

Document.pointerLockElement Read only

Returns the element set as the target for mouse events while the pointer is locked. null if lock is pending, pointer is unlocked, or if the target is in another document.

Document.prerendering Read only Experimental

Returns a boolean that indicates whether the document is currently in the process of prerendering, as initiated via the Speculation Rules API.

Document.scripts Read only

Returns an HTMLCollection of the <script> elements in the document.

Document.scrollingElement Read only

Returns a reference to the Element that scrolls the document.

Document.styleSheets Read only

Returns a StyleSheetList of CSSStyleSheet objects for stylesheets explicitly linked into, or embedded in a document.

Document.timeline Read only

Returns timeline as a special instance of DocumentTimeline that is automatically created on page load.

Document.visibilityState Read only

Returns a string denoting the visibility state of the document. Possible values are visible, hidden, prerender, and unloaded.

Extensions for HTMLDocument

The Document interface for HTML documents inherits from the HTMLDocument interface or is extended for such documents.

Document.cookie

Returns a semicolon-separated list of the cookies for that document or sets a single cookie.

Document.defaultView Read only

Returns a reference to the window object.

Document.designMode

Gets/sets the ability to edit the whole document.

Document.dir

Gets/sets directionality (rtl/ltr) of the document.

Document.fullscreenEnabled Read only

Indicates whether fullscreen mode is available.

Document.lastModified Read only

Returns the date on which the document was last modified.

Document.location Read only

Returns the URI of the current document.

Document.readyState Read only

Returns loading status of the document.

Document.referrer Read only

Returns the URI of the page that linked to this page.

Document.title

Sets or gets the title of the current document.

Document.URL Read only

Returns the document location as a string.

Deprecated properties

Document.alinkColor Deprecated

Returns or sets the color of active links in the document body.

Document.all Deprecated

Provides access to all elements in the document — it returns an HTMLAllCollection rooted at the document node. This is a legacy, non-standard property and should not be used.

Document.anchors Deprecated Read only

Returns a list of all of the anchors in the document.

Document.applets Deprecated Read only

Returns an empty HTMLCollection. Legacy property that used to return the list of applets within a document.

Document.bgColor Deprecated

Gets/sets the background color of the current document.

Document.charset Deprecated Read only

Alias of Document.characterSet. Use this property instead.

Document.domain Deprecated

Gets/sets the domain of the current document.

Document.fgColor Deprecated

Gets/sets the foreground color, or text color, of the current document.

Document.fullscreen Deprecated

Returns true when the document is in fullscreen mode.

Document.inputEncoding Deprecated Read only

Alias of Document.characterSet. Use this property instead.

Document.lastStyleSheetSet Deprecated Read only Non-standard

Returns the name of the style sheet set that was last enabled. Has the value null until the style sheet is changed by setting the value of selectedStyleSheetSet.

Document.linkColor Deprecated

Gets/sets the color of hyperlinks in the document.

Document.preferredStyleSheetSet Deprecated Read only Non-standard

Returns the preferred style sheet set as specified by the page author.

Document.rootElement Deprecated

Like Document.documentElement, but only for <svg> root elements. Use this property instead.

Document.selectedStyleSheetSet Deprecated Non-standard

Returns which style sheet set is currently in use.

Document.styleSheetSets Deprecated Read only Non-standard

Returns a list of the style sheet sets available on the document.

Document.vlinkColor Deprecated

Gets/sets the color of visited hyperlinks.

Document.xmlEncoding Deprecated

Returns the encoding as determined by the XML declaration.

Document.xmlStandalone Deprecated

Returns true if the XML declaration specifies the document to be standalone (e.g., An external part of the DTD affects the document's content), else false.

Document.xmlVersion Deprecated

Returns the version number as specified in the XML declaration or "1.0" if the declaration is absent.

Instance methods

This interface also inherits from the Node and EventTarget interfaces.

Document.adoptNode()

Adopt node from an external document.

Document.append()

Inserts a set of Node objects or string objects after the last child of the document.

Document.browsingTopics() Experimental

Returns a promise that fulfills with an array of objects representing observed topics for the current user and site. It also triggers the browser to observe topics for the current user and site. See the Topics API for more details.

Document.captureEvents() Deprecated

See Window.captureEvents.

Document.caretPositionFromPoint()

Returns a CaretPosition object containing the DOM node containing the caret, and caret's character offset within that node.

Document.caretRangeFromPoint() Non-standard

Gets a Range object for the document fragment under the specified coordinates.

Document.createAttribute()

Creates a new Attr object and returns it.

Document.createAttributeNS()

Creates a new attribute node in a given namespace and returns it.

Document.createCDATASection()

Creates a new CDATA node and returns it.

Document.createComment()

Creates a new comment node and returns it.

Document.createDocumentFragment()

Creates a new document fragment.

Document.createElement()

Creates a new element with the given tag name.

Document.createElementNS()

Creates a new element with the given tag name and namespace URI.

Document.createEvent()

Creates an event object.

Document.createNodeIterator()

Creates a NodeIterator object.

Document.createProcessingInstruction()

Creates a new ProcessingInstruction object.

Document.createRange()

Creates a Range object.

Document.createTextNode()

Creates a text node.

Document.createTouch() Deprecated Non-standard

Creates a Touch object.

Document.createTouchList() Deprecated Non-standard

Creates a TouchList object.

Document.createTreeWalker()

Creates a TreeWalker object.

Document.elementFromPoint()

Returns the topmost element at the specified coordinates.

Document.elementsFromPoint()

Returns an array of all elements at the specified coordinates.

Document.enableStyleSheetsForSet() Deprecated Non-standard

Enables the style sheets for the specified style sheet set.

Document.exitFullscreen()

Stops document's fullscreen element from being displayed fullscreen.

Document.exitPictureInPicture()

Remove the video from the floating picture-in-picture window back to its original container.

Document.exitPointerLock()

Release the pointer lock.

Document.getAnimations()

Returns an array of all Animation objects currently in effect, whose target elements are descendants of the document.

Document.getBoxQuads() Experimental

Returns a list of DOMQuad objects representing the CSS fragments of the node.

Document.getElementById()

Returns an object reference to the identified element.

Document.getElementsByClassName()

Returns a list of elements with the given class name.

Document.getElementsByTagName()

Returns a list of elements with the given tag name.

Document.getElementsByTagNameNS()

Returns a list of elements with the given tag name and namespace.

Document.getSelection()

Returns a Selection object representing the range of text selected by the user, or the current position of the caret.

Document.hasStorageAccess()

Returns a Promise that resolves with a boolean value indicating whether the document has access to unpartitioned cookies.

Document.importNode()

Returns a clone of a node from an external document.

Document.mozSetImageElement() Non-standard

Allows you to change the element being used as the background image for a specified element ID.

Document.prepend()

Inserts a set of Node objects or string objects before the first child of the document.

Document.querySelector()

Returns the first Element node within the document, in document order, that matches the specified selectors.

Document.querySelectorAll()

Returns a list of all the Element nodes within the document that match the specified selectors.

Document.releaseCapture() Non-standard

Releases the current mouse capture if it's on an element in this document.

Document.releaseEvents() Deprecated

See Window.releaseEvents().

Document.replaceChildren()

Replaces the existing children of a document with a specified new set of children.

Document.requestStorageAccess()

Allows a document loaded in a third-party context (i.e. embedded in an <iframe>) to request access to unpartitioned cookies, in cases where user agents by default block access to unpartitioned cookies by sites loaded in a third-party context to improve privacy.

Document.requestStorageAccessFor() Experimental

Allows top-level sites to request third-party cookie access on behalf of embedded content originating from another site in the same related website set.

Document.startViewTransition() Experimental

Starts a new view transition and returns a ViewTransition object to represent it.

The Document interface is extended with the XPathEvaluator interface:

Document.createExpression()

Compiles an XPathExpression which can then be used for (repeated) evaluations.

Document.createNSResolver()

Creates an XPathNSResolver object.

Document.evaluate()

Evaluates an XPath expression.

Extension for HTML documents

The Document interface for HTML documents inherit from the HTMLDocument interface or is extended for such documents:

Document.clear() Deprecated

This method does nothing.

Document.close()

Closes a document stream for writing.

Document.execCommand() Deprecated

On an editable document, executes a formatting command.

Document.getElementsByName()

Returns a list of elements with the given name.

Document.hasFocus()

Returns true if the focus is currently located anywhere inside the specified document.

Document.open()

Opens a document stream for writing.

Document.queryCommandEnabled() Deprecated Non-standard

Returns true if the formatting command can be executed on the current range.

Document.queryCommandIndeterm() Deprecated

Returns true if the formatting command is in an indeterminate state on the current range.

Document.queryCommandState() Deprecated Non-standard

Returns true if the formatting command has been executed on the current range.

Document.queryCommandSupported() Deprecated Non-standard

Returns true if the formatting command is supported on the current range.

Document.queryCommandValue() Deprecated

Returns the current value of the current range for a formatting command.

Document.write()

Writes text in a document.

Document.writeln()

Writes a line of text in a document.

Events

Listen to these events using addEventListener() or by assigning an event listener to the oneventname property of this interface. In addition to the events listed below, many events can bubble from nodes contained in the document tree.

afterscriptexecute Non-standard

Fired when a static <script> element finishes executing its script

beforescriptexecute Non-standard

Fired when a static <script> is about to start executing.

prerenderingchange Experimental

Fired on a prerendered document when it is activated (i.e. the user views the page).

securitypolicyviolation

Fired when a content security policy is violated.

visibilitychange

Fired when the content of a tab has become visible or has been hidden.

Clipboard events

copy

Fired when the user initiates a copy action through the browser's user interface.

cut

Fired when the user initiates a cut action through the browser's user interface.

paste

Fired when the user initiates a paste action through the browser's user interface.

Fullscreen events

fullscreenchange

Fired when the Document transitions into or out of fullscreen mode.

fullscreenerror

Fired if an error occurs while attempting to switch into or out of fullscreen mode.

Load & unload events

DOMContentLoaded

Fired when the document has been completely loaded and parsed, without waiting for stylesheets, images, and subframes to finish loading.

readystatechange

Fired when the readyState attribute of a document has changed.

Pointer lock events

pointerlockchange

Fired when the pointer is locked/unlocked.

pointerlockerror

Fired when locking the pointer failed.

Scroll events

scroll

Fired when the document view or an element has been scrolled.

scrollend

Fired when the document view or an element has been scrolled.

Selection events

selectionchange

Fired when the current text selection on a document is changed.

Specifications

Specification
DOM Standard
# interface-document
HTML Standard
# the-document-object
CSSOM View Module
# extensions-to-the-document-interface
Pointer Lock 2.0
# extensions-to-the-document-interface
Selection API
# extensions-to-document-interface

Browser compatibility

BCD tables only load in the browser