Document

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Each web page loaded in the browser has its own document object. The Document interface serves as an entry point into the web page's content (the DOM tree, including elements such as <body> and <table>) and provides functionality which is global to the document (such as obtaining the page's URL and creating new elements in the document).

A document object can be obtained from various APIs:

Depending on the kind of the document (e.g. HTML or XML), different APIs may be available on the document object.

  • All document objects implement the Document interface (and hence the Node and EventTarget interfaces). Thus, the "core" properties and methods documented on this page are available for all kinds of documents.
  • In contemporary browsers, some documents (e.g. those served with the text/html content type) also implement the HTMLDocument interface.
  • In contemporary browsers, SVG documents implement the SVGDocument interface.

In the future, all those interfaces will be collapsed into the Document interface.

Properties

Note: The Document interface also inherits from the Node and EventTarget interfaces.

Document.all
Provides access to all elements with an id. This is a legacy non-standard interface, you should use the Document.getElementById() method instead.
Document.async
Used with document.load to indicate an asynchronous request.
Document.characterSet
Returns the character set being used by the document.
Document.compatMode
Indicates whether the document is rendered in Quirks or Strict mode.
Document.contentType
Returns the Content-Type from the MIME Header of the current document.
Document.doctype
Returns the Document Type Definition (DTD) of the current document.
Document.documentElement
Returns the Element that is a direct child of the document. For HTML documents, this is normally the HTML element.
Document.documentURI
Returns the document URL.
Document.domConfig
Should return a DOMConfiguration object.
Document.implementation
Returns the DOM implementation associated with the current document.
Document.inputEncoding
Returns the encoding used when the document was parsed.
Document.lastStyleSheetSet
Returns the name of the style sheet set that was last enabled. Has the value null until the style sheet is changed by setting the value of selectedStyleSheetSet.
Document.mozSyntheticDocument
true if this document is synthetic, such as a standalone image, video, audio file, or the like.
Document.mozFullScreen
true when the document is in full-screen mode.
Document.mozFullScreenElement
The element that's currently in full screen mode for this document.
Document.mozFullScreenEnabled
true if calling element.mozRequestFullscreen() would succeed in the curent document.
Document.pointerLockElement
Returns the element set as the target for mouse events while the pointer is locked. null if lock is pending, pointer is unlocked, or if the target is in another document.
Document.preferredStyleSheetSet
Returns the preferred style sheet set as specified by the page author.
Document.selectedStyleSheetSet
Returns which style sheet set is currently in use.
Document.styleSheets
Returns a list of the style sheet objects on the current document.
Document.styleSheetSets
Returns a list of the style sheet sets available on the document.
Document.xmlEncoding
Returns the encoding as determined by the XML declaration.
Document.xmlStandalone 안씀 Gecko 10.0
Returns true if the XML declaration specifies the document to be standalone (e.g., An external part of the DTD affects the document's content), else false.
Document.xmlVersion 안씀 Gecko 10.0
Returns the version number as specified in the XML declaration or "1.0" if the declaration is absent.

The Document interface is extended with the ParentNode interface:

ParentNode.children Read only
Returns a live HTMLCollection containing all objects of type Element that are children of this ParentNode.
ParentNode.firstElementChild Read only
Returns the Element that is the first child of this ParentNode, or null if there is none.
ParentNode.lastElementChild Read only
Returns the Element that is the last child of this ParentNode, or null if there is none.
ParentNode.childElementCount Read only
Returns an unsigned long giving the amount of children that the object has.

Extension for HTML documents

The Document interface for HTML documents inherit from the HTMLDocument interface or, since HTML5, is extended for such documents:

Document.activeElement
Returns the currently focused element.
Document.alinkColor
Returns or sets the color of active links in the document body.
Document.anchors
Returns a list of all of the anchors in the document.
Document.applets
Returns an ordered list of the applets within a document.
Document.bgColor
Gets/sets the background color of the current document.
Document.body
Returns the <body> element of the current document.
Document.cookie
Returns a semicolon-separated list of the cookies for that document or sets a single cookie.
Document.defaultView
Returns a reference to the window object.
Document.designMode
Gets/sets the ability to edit the whole document.
Document.dir
Gets/sets directionality (rtl/ltr) of the document.
Document.domain
Returns the domain of the current document.
Document.embeds
Returns a list of the embedded <embed> elements within the current document.
Document.fgColor
Gets/sets the foreground color, or text color, of the current document.
Document.forms
Returns a list of the <form> elements within the current document.
Document.head
Returns the <head> element of the current document.
Document.height
Gets/sets the height of the current document.
Document.images
Returns a list of the images in the current document.
Document.lastModified
Returns the date on which the document was last modified.
Document.linkColor
Gets/sets the color of hyperlinks in the document.
Document.links
Returns a list of all the hyperlinks in the document.
Document.location
Returns the URI of the current document.
Document.plugins
Returns a list of the available plugins.
Document.readyState
Returns loading status of the document.
Document.referrer
Returns the URI of the page that linked to this page.
Document.scripts
Returns all the <script> elements on the document.
Document.title
Returns the title of the current document.
Document.URL
Returns a string containing the URL of the current document.
Document.vlinkColor
Gets/sets the color of visited hyperlinks.
Document.width
Returns the width of the current document.

Event handlers

Document.onpointerlockchange
Returns the event handling code for the pointerlockchange event.
Document.onpointerlockerror
Returns the event handling code for the pointerlockerror event.
Document.onreadystatechange
Returns the event handling code for the readystatechange event.

Methods

Note: The Document interface also inherits from the Node and EventTarget interfaces.

Document.adoptNode(Node node)
Adopt node from an external document.
Document.captureEvents(String eventName)
See window.captureEvents.
Document.caretPositionFromPoint(Number x, Number y)
Gets a CaretPosition based on two coordinates.
Document.createAttribute(String name)
Creates a new Attr object and returns it.
Document.createAttributeNS(String namespace, String name)
Creates a new attribute node in a given namespace and returns it.
Document.createCDATASection(String data)
Creates a new CDATA node and returns it.
Document.createComment(String comment)
Creates a new comment node and returns it.
Document.createDocumentFragment()
Creates a new document fragment.
Document.createElement(String name)
Creates a new element with the given tag name.
Document.createElementNS(String namespace, String name)
Creates a new element with the given tag name and namespace URI.
Document.createEntityReference(String name)
Creates a new entity reference object and returns it.
Document.createEvent(String interface)
Creates an event object.
Document.createNodeIterator(Node root[, Number whatToShow[, NodeFilter filter]])
Creates a NodeIterator object.
Document.createProcessingInstruction(String target, String data)
Creates a new ProcessingInstruction object.
Document.createRange()
Creates a Range object.
Document.createTextNode(String text)
Creates a text node.
Document.createTreeWalker(Node root[, Number whatToShow[, NodeFilter filter]])
Creates a TreeWalker object.
Document.elementFromPoint(Number x, Number y)
Returns the element visible at the specified coordinates.
Document.enableStyleSheetsForSet(String name)
Enables the style sheets for the specified style sheet set.
Document.exitPointerLock()
Release the pointer lock.
Document.getElementsByClassName(String className)
Returns a list of elements with the given class name.
Document.getElementsByTagName(String tagName)
Returns a list of elements with the given tag name.
Document.getElementsByTagNameNS(String namespace, String tagName)
Returns a list of elements with the given tag name and namespace.
Document.importNode(Node node, Boolean deep)
Returns a clone of a node from an external document.
document.mozSetImageElement
Allows you to change the element being used as the background image for a specified element ID.
Document.normalizeDocument()
Replaces entities, normalizes text nodes, etc.
Document.releaseCapture()
Releases the current mouse capture if it's on an element in this document.
Document.releaseEvents
See window.releaseEvents.
document.routeEvent 안씀 Gecko 24
See window.routeEvent.

The Document interface is extended with the ParentNode interface:

Document.getElementById(String id)
Returns an object reference to the identified element.
Document.querySelector(String selector)
Returns the first Element node within the document, in document order, that matches the specified selectors.
Document.querySelectorAll(String selector)
Returns a list of all the Element nodes within the document that match the specified selectors.

The Document interface is extended with the XPathEvaluator interface:

Document.createExpression(String expression, XPathNSResolver resolver)
Compiles an XPathExpression which can then be used for (repeated) evaluations.
Document.createNSResolver(Node resolver)
Creates an XPathNSResolver object.
Document.evaluate(String expression, Node contextNode, XPathNSResolver resolver, Number type, Object result)
Evaluates an XPath expression.

Extension for HTML documents

The Document interface for HTML documents inherit from the HTMLDocument interface or, since HTML5, is extended for such documents:

Document.clear()
In majority of modern browsers, including recent versions of Firefox and Internet Explorer, this method does nothing.
Document.close()
Closes a document stream for writing.
Document.execCommand(String command[, Boolean showUI[, String value]])
On an editable document, executes a formating command.
Document.getElementsByName(String name)
Returns a list of elements with the given name.
Document.getSelection()
Returns a Selection object related to text selected in the document.
Document.hasFocus()
Returns true if the focus is currently located anywhere inside the specified document.
Document.open()
Opens a document stream for writing.
Document.queryCommandEnabled(String command)
Returns true if the formating command can be executed on the current range.
Document.queryCommandIndeterm(String command)
Returns true if the formating command is in an indeterminate state on the current range.
Document.queryCommandState(String command)
Returns true if the formating command has been executed on the current range.
Document.queryCommandSupported(String command)
Returns true if the formating command is supported on the current range.
Document.queryCommandValue(String command)
Returns the current value of the current range for a formatting command.
Document.registerElement(String tagname[, Object options])
Registers a new custom element in the browser and returns a constructor for the new element.
Document.write(String text)
Writes text in a document.
Document.writeln(String text)
Writes a line of text in a document.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
Document Object Model (DOM) Level 1 Specification
The definition of 'Document' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition for the interface
Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification
The definition of 'Document' in that specification.
Recommendation Supersede DOM 1
Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Core Specification
The definition of 'Document' in that specification.
Recommendation Supersede DOM 2
DOM
The definition of 'Document' in that specification.
Living Standard Intend to supersede DOM 3
WHATWG HTML Living Standard
The definition of 'Document' in that specification.
Living Standard Turn the HTMLDocument interface into a Document extension.
Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 XPath Specification
The definition of 'XPathEvaluator' in that specification.
Recommendation Define the XPathEvaluator interface which extend Document.
HTML Editing APIs
The definition of 'Document' in that specification.
Editor's Draft Extend the Document interface
CSS Object Model (CSSOM) View Module
The definition of 'Document' in that specification.
Working Draft Extend the Document interface
CSS Object Model (CSSOM)
The definition of 'Document' in that specification.
Working Draft Extend the Document interface
Pointer Lock
The definition of 'Document' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Extend the Document interface

Browser compatibility

Firefox notes

Mozilla defines a set of non-standard properties made only for XUL content:

document.currentScript
Returns the <script> element that is currently executing.
document.documentURIObject
(Mozilla add-ons only!) Returns the nsIURI object representing the URI of the document. This property only has special meaning in privileged JavaScript code (with UniversalXPConnect privileges).
document.popupNode
Returns the node upon which a popup was invoked.
document.tooltipNode
Returns the node which is the target of the current tooltip.

Mozilla also define some non-standard methods:

Document.execCommandShowHelp 안씀 Gecko 14.0
This method never did anything and always threw an exception, so it was removed in Gecko 14.0 (Firefox 14.0 / Thunderbird 14.0 / SeaMonkey 2.11).
Document.getBoxObjectFor
Use the Element.getBoundingClientRect() method instead.
Document.loadOverlay
Loads a XUL overlay dynamically. This only works in XUL documents.
document.queryCommandText 안씀 Gecko 14.0
This method never did anything but throw an exception, and was removed in Gecko 14.0 (Firefox 14.0 / Thunderbird 14.0 / SeaMonkey 2.11).

Internet Explorer notes

Microsoft defines some non-standard properties:

document.fileSize*
Returns size in bytes of the document. Starting with Internet Explorer 11, that property is no longer supported. See MSDN.
Internet Explorer does not support all methods from the Node interface in the Document interface:
document.contains
As a work-around, document.body.contains() can be used.

 

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Contributors to this page: fscholz, khalid32, teoli, 권지웅
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