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Klasy w Javascript wprowadzone ECMAScript 2015 to cukier syntaktyczny nad istniejącym opartym na prototypach modelu dziedziczenia. Składnia klas nie wprowadza nowego zorientowanego obiektowo modelu dziedziczenia. Klasy wprowadzają znacznie prostszą i bardziej czytelną składnię do tworzenia obiektów i dziedziczenia.

Definiowanie klas

Klasy są w zasadzie "specialnymi funkcjami" i pododnie jak możesz definiować wyrażenia function i deklaracje funkcji, składnia klasy posiada dwa komponenty: wyrażenie class i deklaracja klasy.

Deklaracje klas

Jednym ze sposobów definiowania klas jest zadeklarowanie klasy. Aby zadeklarować klasę, należy użyć wyrażenia class z nazwą klasy (w tym przypadku "Rectangle").

class Rectangle {
  constructor(height, width) {
    this.height = height;
    this.width = width;
  }
}

Hoisting

Ważną różnicą pomiędzy deklaracją funkcji a deklaracją klasy jest to, że deklaracje funkcji są przenoszone na początek (hoisted) a klas nie. Najpierw musisz zadeklarować swoją klasę by mieć do niej dostęp, w przeciwnym razie kod, jak ten poniżej, wyrzuci wyjątek ReferenceError:

var p = new Rectangle(); // ReferenceError

class Rectangle {}

Wyrażenia class

Wyrażenie class jest kolejnym sposobem definiowania klasy. Wyrażenia class mogą być nazwane lub nienazwane. Nazwa przypisana nazwanemu wyrażeniu class jest lokalna dla ciała klasy.

// unnamed
var Rectangle = class {
  constructor(height, width) {
    this.height = height;
    this.width = width;
  }
};

// named
var Rectangle = class Rectangle {
  constructor(height, width) {
    this.height = height;
    this.width = width;
  }
};

Uwaga: Wyrażenia class również dotykają te same kwestie związane z przenoszeniem na początek (ang. hoisting) co wspomnianych deklaracji klas.

Class body and method definitions

The body of a class is the part that is in curly brackets {}. This is where you define class members, such as methods or constructors.

Strict mode

The bodies of class declarations and class expressions are executed in strict mode.

Constructor

The constructor method is a special method for creating and initializing an object created with a class. There can only be one special method with the name "constructor" in a class. A SyntaxError will be thrown if the class contains more than one occurrence of a constructor method.

A constructor can use the super keyword to call the constructor of a parent class.

Prototype methods

See also method definitions.

class Rectangle {
  constructor(height, width) {
    this.height = height;
    this.width = width;
  }
  
  get area() {
    return this.calcArea();
  }

  calcArea() {
    return this.height * this.width;
  }
}

const square = new Rectangle(10, 10);

console.log(square.area);

Static methods

The static keyword defines a static method for a class. Static methods are called without instantiating their class and cannot be called through a class instance. Static methods are often used to create utility functions for an application.

class Point {
  constructor(x, y) {
    this.x = x;
    this.y = y;
  }

  static distance(a, b) {
    const dx = a.x - b.x;
    const dy = a.y - b.y;

    return Math.sqrt(dx*dx + dy*dy);
  }
}

const p1 = new Point(5, 5);
const p2 = new Point(10, 10);

console.log(Point.distance(p1, p2));

Boxing with prototype and static methods

When a static or prototype method is called without an object valued "this" (or with "this" as boolean, string, number, undefined or null), then the "this" value will be undefined inside the called function. Autoboxing will not happen. The behaviour will be the same even if we write the code in non-strict mode.

class Animal { 
  speak() {
    return this;
  }
  static eat() {
    return this;
  }
}

let obj = new Animal();
let speak = obj.speak;
speak(); // undefined

let eat = Animal.eat;
eat(); // undefined

If we write the above code using traditional function based classes, then autoboxing will happen based on the "this" value for which the function was called.

function Animal() { }

Animal.prototype.speak = function() {
  return this;
}

Animal.eat = function() {
  return this;
}

let obj = new Animal();
let speak = obj.speak;
speak(); // global object

let eat = Animal.eat;
eat(); // global object

Sub classing with extends

The extends keyword is used in class declarations or class expressions to create a class as a child of another class.

class Animal { 
  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }
  
  speak() {
    console.log(this.name + ' makes a noise.');
  }
}

class Dog extends Animal {
  speak() {
    console.log(this.name + ' barks.');
  }
}

var d = new Dog('Mitzie');
d.speak();

If there is a constructor present in sub-class, it needs to first call super() before using "this".

One may also extend traditional function-based "classes":

function Animal (name) {
  this.name = name;  
}

Animal.prototype.speak = function () {
  console.log(this.name + ' makes a noise.');
}

class Dog extends Animal {
  speak() {
    console.log(this.name + ' barks.');
  }
}

var d = new Dog('Mitzie');
d.speak();

Note that classes cannot extend regular (non-constructible) objects. If you want to inherit from a regular object, you can instead use Object.setPrototypeOf():

var Animal = {
  speak() {
    console.log(this.name + ' makes a noise.');
  }
};

class Dog {
  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }
}

Object.setPrototypeOf(Dog.prototype, Animal);// If you do not do this you will get a TypeError when you invoke speak

var d = new Dog('Mitzie');
d.speak(); //Mitzie makes a noise.

Species

You might want to return Array objects in your derived array class MyArray. The species pattern lets you override default constructors.

For example, when using methods such as map() that returns the default constructor, you want these methods to return a parent Array object, instead of the MyArray object. The Symbol.species symbol lets you do this:

class MyArray extends Array {
  // Overwrite species to the parent Array constructor
  static get [Symbol.species]() { return Array; }
}

var a = new MyArray(1,2,3);
var mapped = a.map(x => x * x);

console.log(mapped instanceof MyArray); // false
console.log(mapped instanceof Array);   // true

Super class calls with super

The super keyword is used to call functions on an object's parent.

class Cat { 
  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
  }
  
  speak() {
    console.log(this.name + ' makes a noise.');
  }
}

class Lion extends Cat {
  speak() {
    super.speak();
    console.log(this.name + ' roars.');
  }
}

Mix-ins

Abstract subclasses or mix-ins are templates for classes. An ECMAScript class can only have a single superclass, so multiple inheritance from tooling classes, for example, is not possible. The functionality must be provided by the superclass.

A function with a superclass as input and a subclass extending that superclass as output can be used to implement mix-ins in ECMAScript:

var calculatorMixin = Base => class extends Base {
  calc() { }
};

var randomizerMixin = Base => class extends Base {
  randomize() { }
};

A class that uses these mix-ins can then be written like this:

class Foo { }
class Bar extends calculatorMixin(randomizerMixin(Foo)) { }

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Class definitions' in that specification.
Standard Initial definition.
ECMAScript Latest Draft (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Class definitions' in that specification.
Living Standard  

Browser compatibility

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Edge Internet Explorer Opera Safari
Basic support 42.0[1]
49.0
45 (45) 13 No support No support 9.0
Feature Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile Chrome for Android
Basic support No support 45.0 (45) ? ? 9 42.0[1]
49.0

[1] Requires strict mode. Non-strict mode support is behind the flag "Enable Experimental JavaScript", disabled by default.

See also

Autorzy i etykiety dokumentu

 Autorzy tej strony: artmiron, labs4apps, gavinhungry
 Ostatnia aktualizacja: artmiron,