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Document.evaluate()

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XPath 式やその他与えられたパラメータに基づいて XPathResult を返します。
 

構文

var xpathResult = document.evaluate(
 xpathExpression, 
 contextNode, 
 namespaceResolver, 
 resultType, 
 result
);
  • xpathExpression は評価される Xpath を示す文字列です。
  • contextNode はクエリのコンテキストノードを指定します(XPath の仕様を参照してください) コンテキストノードとして document を渡すのが一般的です。
  • namespaceResolver は、任意の名前空間接頭辞を受け取り、その接頭辞に関連付けられた名前空間 URI を文字列として返す関数です。接頭辞が文書の中でマッチされるように、XPath 自身の中で接頭辞を解決するために使われます。HTML 文書向け、または名前空間接頭辞を使わないときは null を指定するのが一般的です。
  • resultType は返り値である XPathResult のタイプに対応する整数です。XPathResult コンストラクタの名前付き定数プロパティ (例えば XPathResult.ANY_TYPE) を使用してください。これらは0から9までの整数に対応しています。
  • result は結果として使われる既存の XPathResult です。null を指定するのが最も一般的です。null は新しい XPathResult を生成します。

var headings = document.evaluate("/html/body//h2", document, null, XPathResult.ANY_TYPE, null); 
/* Search the document for all h2 elements.  
 * The result will likely be an unordered node iterator. */
var thisHeading = headings.iterateNext(); 
var alertText = "Level 2 headings in this document are:\n";
while (thisHeading) {
  alertText += thisHeading.textContent + "\n";
  thisHeading = headings.iterateNext();
}
alert(alertText); // Alerts the text of all h2 elements

Note, in the above example, a more verbose XPath is preferred over common shortcuts such as //h2. Generally, more specific XPath selectors as in the above example usually gives a significant performance improvement, especially on very large documents. This is because the evaluation of the query spends does not waste time visiting unnecessary nodes. Using // is generally slow as it visits every node from the root and all subnodes looking for possible matches.

Further optimization can be achieved by careful use of the context parameter. For example, if you know the content you are looking for is somewhere inside the body tag, you can use this:

document.evaluate(".//h2", document.body, null, XPathResult.ANY_TYPE, null);

Notice in the above document.body has been used as the context instead of document so the XPath starts from the body element. (In this example, the "." is important to indicate that the querying should start from the context node, document.body. If the "." was left out (leaving //h2) the query would start from the root node (html) which would be more wasteful.)

See Introduction to using XPath in JavaScript for more information.

注釈

  • XPath expressions can be evaluated on HTML and XML documents.
  • While using document.evaluate() works in FF2, in FF3 one must use someXMLDoc.evaluate() if evaluating against something other than the current document.

戻り値の分類

(Merge with Template:XPathResultConstants?

These are supported values for the resultType parameter of the evaluate method:

Result Type Value Description
ANY_TYPE 0 Whatever type naturally results from the given expression.
NUMBER_TYPE 1 A result set containing a single number. Useful, for example, in an XPath expression using the count() function.
STRING_TYPE 2 A result set containing a single string.
BOOLEAN_TYPE 3 A result set containing a single boolean value. Useful, for example, an an XPath expression using the not() function.
UNORDERED_NODE_ITERATOR_TYPE 4 A result set containing all the nodes matching the expression. The nodes in the result set are not necessarily in the same order they appear in the document.
ORDERED_NODE_ITERATOR_TYPE 5 A result set containing all the nodes matching the expression. The nodes in the result set are in the same order they appear in the document.
UNORDERED_NODE_SNAPSHOT_TYPE 6 A result set containing snapshots of all the nodes matching the expression. The nodes in the result set are not necessarily in the same order they appear in the document.
ORDERED_NODE_SNAPSHOT_TYPE 7 A result set containing snapshots of all the nodes matching the expression. The nodes in the result set are in the same order they appear in the document.
ANY_UNORDERED_NODE_TYPE 8 A result set containing any single node that matches the expression. The node is not necessarily the first node in the document that matches the expression.
FIRST_ORDERED_NODE_TYPE 9 A result set containing the first node in the document that matches the expression.

Results of NODE_ITERATOR types contain references to nodes in the document. Modifying a node will invalidate the iterator. After modifying a node, attempting to iterate through the results will result in an error.

Results of NODE_SNAPSHOT types are snapshots, which are essentially lists of matched nodes. You can make changes to the document by altering snapshot nodes. Modifying the document doesn't invalidate the snapshot; however, if the document is changed, the snapshot may not correspond to the current state of the document, since nodes may have moved, been changed, added, or removed.

仕様

Specification Status Comment
Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 XPath Specification
Document.evaluate の定義
勧告 Initial specification

ブラウザ互換性

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari (WebKit)
XPath 1.0 support 1 1.5 (1.8) 未サポート 9.0 (有)[1]
Feature Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
XPath 1.0 ? ? ? ? ?

[1] Implemented in WebKit 5.0 (531) or earlier.

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