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O método encodeURIComponent() codifica  uma URI (Identificador recurso uniforme) substituindo cada ocorrência de determinados caracteres por um, dois, três, ou quatro seqüências de escape que representam a codificação UTF-8 do caractere (só será quatro seqüências de escape para caracteres compostos por dois caracteres "substituto").

Syntaxe

encodeURIComponent(str);

Parâmetros

str
String. Uma sequência URI.

Descrição

encodeURIComponent escapa todos os caracteres, exceto: afabeto, digitos decimais, - _ . ! ~ * ' ( )

Note-se que umURIError será gerada se uma tentativas para codificar um substituto que não faz parte de um par de alta-baixa, por exemplo,

// high-low par ok
console.log(encodeURIComponent('\uD800\uDFFF'));

// lone high surrogate throws "URIError: malformed URI sequence"
console.log(encodeURIComponent('\uD800'));

// lone low surrogate throws "URIError: malformed URI sequence"
console.log(encodeURIComponent('\uDFFF')); 

To avoid unexpected requests to the server, you should call encodeURIComponent on any user-entered parameters that will be passed as part of a URI. For example, a user could type "Thyme &time=again" for a variable comment. Not using encodeURIComponent on this variable will give comment=Thyme%20&time=again. Note that the ampersand and the equal sign mark a new key and value pair. So instead of having a POST comment key equal to "Thyme &time=again", you have two POST keys, one equal to "Thyme " and another (time) equal to again.

For application/x-www-form-urlencoded, spaces are to be replaced by '+', so one may wish to follow a encodeURIComponent replacement with an additional replacement of "%20" with "+".

To be more stringent in adhering to RFC 3986 (which reserves !, ', (, ), and *), even though these characters have no formalized URI delimiting uses, the following can be safely used:

function fixedEncodeURIComponent (str) {
  return encodeURIComponent(str).replace(/[!'()*]/g, function(c) {
    return '%' + c.charCodeAt(0).toString(16);
  });
}

Exemplos

O exemplo seguinte prove o encoding especial requerido pelo UTF-8 nos parametros Content-Disposition e Link no cabeçalho de uma Response (e.g., UTF-8 filenames):

var fileName = 'my file(2).txt';
var header = "Content-Disposition: attachment; filename*=UTF-8''" 
             + encodeRFC5987ValueChars(fileName);

console.log(header); 
// logs "Content-Disposition: attachment; filename*=UTF-8''my%20file%282%29.txt"


function encodeRFC5987ValueChars (str) {
    return encodeURIComponent(str).
        // Note that although RFC3986 reserves "!", RFC5987 does not,
        // so we do not need to escape it
        replace(/['()]/g, escape). // i.e., %27 %28 %29
        replace(/\*/g, '%2A').
            // The following are not required for percent-encoding per RFC5987, 
            // so we can allow for a little better readability over the wire: |`^
            replace(/%(?:7C|60|5E)/g, unescape);
}

Especificações

Especificação Status Comentario
ECMAScript 3rd Edition (ECMA-262) Standard Definição Inicial.
ECMAScript 5.1 (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'encodeURIComponent' in that specification.
Standard  
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
The definition of 'encodeURIComponent' in that specification.
Standard  

Compatibilidade - Browser

Feature Chrome Firefox (Gecko) Internet Explorer Opera Safari
Basic support (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)
Feature Android Chrome for Android Firefox Mobile (Gecko) IE Mobile Opera Mobile Safari Mobile
Basic support (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes) (Yes)

Veja também

Etiquetas do documento e colaboradores

 Colaboradores desta página: fabriciofrontarolli, TiagoNeves
 Última atualização por: fabriciofrontarolli,