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WebGL (Biblioteca de Gráficos da Web) é uma API de JavaScript para a renderização de gráficos 2D e 3D interativos dentro de qualquer navegador da Web compatível sem a utilização de plug-ins. WebGL fazi isso, ao introduzir uma API que está em conformidade com o OpenGL ES 2.0 que pode ser utilizado em elementos <canvas> de HTML5.

O suporte para WebGL está presente no Firefox 4+, Google Chrome 9+, Opera 12+, Safari 5.1+ and Internet Explorer 11+, e Microsoft Edge build 10240+; contudo, o dispositivo do utilizador também deve ter hardware que suporte estas funcionalidades.

O elemento <canvas> também é utilizado por Canvas 2D para gráficos 2D nas páginas da Web.

Referência

Interfaces padrão

Extensões

Eventos

Constantes e tipos

WebGL 2

WebGL 2 é uma atualização muito importante para WebGL que é fornecida através da inteface de WebGL2RenderingContext. Esta tem como base o OpenGL ES 3.0 e novas funcionalidades includas:

See also the blog post "WebGL 2 lands in Firefox" and webglsamples.org/WebGL2Samples for a few demos.

Guias e tutoriais

Below, you'll find an assortment of guides to help you learn WebGL concepts and tutorials that offer step-by-step lessons and examples.

Guias

Dados em WebGL
A guide to variables, buffers, and other types of data used when writing WebGL code.
WebGL best practices
Tips and suggestions to help you improve the quality, performance, and reliability of your WebGL content.
Using extensions
A guide to using WebGL extensions.

Tutoriais

WebGL tutorial
A beginner's guide to WebGL core concepts. A good place to start if you don't have previous WebGL experience.

Exemplos

A basic 2D WebGL animation example
This example demonstrates the simple animation of a one-color shape. Topics examined are adapting to aspect ratio differences, a function to build shader programs from sets of multiple shaders, and the basics of drawing in WebGL.
WebGL by example
A series of live samples with short explanations that showcase WebGL concepts and capabilities. The examples are sorted according to topic and level of difficulty, covering the WebGL rendering context, shader programming, textures, geometry, user interaction, and more.

Tutoriais avançados

WebGL model view projection
A detailed explanation of the three core matrices that are typically used to represent a 3D object view: the model, view and projection matrices.
Matrix math for the web
A useful guide to how 3D transform matrices work, and can be used on the web — both for WebGL calculations and in CSS3 transforms.

Recursos

  • Raw WebGL: An introduction to WebGL A talk by Nick Desaulniers that introduces the basics of WebGL. This is a great place to start if you've never done low-level graphics programming.
  • Khronos WebGL site The main web site for WebGL at the Khronos Group.
  • Learning WebGL A site with tutorials on how to use WebGL.
  • WebGL Fundamentals A basic tutorial with fundamentals of WebGL.
  • WebGL playground An online tool for creating and sharing WebGL projects. Good for quick prototyping and experimenting.
  • WebGL Academy An HTML/JavaScript editor with tutorials to learn basics of webgl programming.
  • WebGL Stats A site with statistics about WebGL capabilities in browsers on different platforms.

Bibliotecas

  • glMatrix is a JavaScript matrix and vector library for high-performance WebGL apps.
  • PhiloGL is a WebGL framework for data visualization, creative coding, and game development.
  • Pixi.js is a fast, open-source 2D WebGL renderer.
  • PlayCanvas is an open-source game engine.
  • Sylvester is an open-source library for manipulating vectors and matrices. Not optimized for WebGL but extremely robust.
  • three.js is an open-source, fully featured 3D WebGL library.

Especificações

Especificação Estado Comentário
WebGL 1.0 Recommendation Initial definition. Based on OpenGL ES 2.0
WebGL 2.0 Editor's Draft Builds on top of WebGL 1. Based on OpenGL ES 3.0.
OpenGL ES 2.0 Standard  
OpenGL ES 3.0 Standard  

Compatibilidade de navegador

WebGL 1

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
WebGLRenderingContextChrome Full support 9Edge Full support 12
Notes
Full support 12
Notes
Notes To access the WebGL context, use experimental-webgl rather than the standard webgl identifier.
Firefox Full support 4IE Full support 11
Notes
Full support 11
Notes
Notes To access the WebGL context, use experimental-webgl rather than the standard webgl identifier.
Opera Full support 12Safari Full support 5.1WebView Android Full support YesChrome Android Full support 25Firefox Android Full support YesOpera Android Full support 12Safari iOS Full support 8.1Samsung Internet Android Full support Yes

Legend

Full support  
Full support
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.

WebGL 2

Update compatibility data on GitHub
DesktopMobile
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung Internet
WebGL2RenderingContextChrome Full support 56Edge No support NoFirefox Full support 51IE No support NoOpera Full support 43Safari No support NoWebView Android Full support 58Chrome Android Full support 58Firefox Android Full support 51Opera Android Full support 43Safari iOS No support NoSamsung Internet Android Full support 7.0

Legend

Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support

Notas de compatibilidade

In addition to the browser, the GPU itself also needs to support the feature. So, for example, S3 Texture Compression (S3TC) is only available on Tegra-based tablets. Most browsers make the WebGL context available through the webgl context name, but older ones need experimental-webgl as well. In addition, the upcoming WebGL 2 is fully backwards-compatible and will have the context name webgl2.

Notas do Gecko

Depuração e teste de WebGL

Starting with Gecko 10.0 (Firefox 10.0 / Thunderbird 10.0 / SeaMonkey 2.7), there are two preferences available which let you control the capabilities of WebGL for testing purposes:

webgl.min_capability_mode
A Boolean property that, when true, enables a minimum capability mode. When in this mode, WebGL is configured to only support the bare minimum feature set and capabilities required by the WebGL specification. This lets you ensure that your WebGL code will work on any device or browser, regardless of their capabilities. This is false by default.
webgl.disable_extensions
A Boolean property that, when true, disables all WebGL extensions. This is false by default.

Consultar também

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