Once you've successfully created a WebGL context, you can start rendering into it. A simple thing we can do is draw a simple square untextured plane, so let's start there, by building code to draw a square plane.

Drawing the scene

The most important thing to understand before we get started is that even though we're only rendering a square plane object in this example, we're still drawing in 3D space. It's just we're drawing a square and we're putting it directly in front of the camera perpendicular to the view direction. We need to define the shaders that will create the color for our simple scene as well as draw our object. These will establish how the square plane appears on the screen.

The shaders

Shaders are specified using the OpenGL ES Shading Language. The details of how shaders work are beyond the scope of this article, as is the shader language syntax but the short version is there are 2 shaders (functions that run on the GPU) that you need to write. A vertex shader and a fragment shader. These are passed to WebGL as strings and compiled to run on the GPU.

Vertex shader

The vertex shader's responsibilty is to set a special variable gl_Position to clip space values (values between -1 and +1) across and up the canvas. In our vertex shader below we're receiving vertex position values from an attribute we define called aVertexPosition. We are then multiplying that position by two 4x4 matrices we define called uProjectionMatrix and uModelMatrix and setting gl_Position to the result. For more info on projection and other matrices you might find this article useful.

  // Vertex shader program

  const vsSource = `
    attribute vec4 aVertexPosition;

    uniform mat4 uModelViewMatrix;
    uniform mat4 uProjectionMatrix;

    void main() {
      gl_Position = uProjectionMatrix * uModelViewMatrix * aVertexPosition;

Fragment shader

Every time the vertex shader writes 1 to 3 values to gl_Position it will draw either a point, line, or triangle. While it's drawing it will call the fragment shader and ask it "what color should I make this pixel?" In this case, we're simply returning white every time.

gl_FragColor is a built-in GL variable that is used for the fragment's color. Setting its value establishes the pixel's color, as seen below.

  const fsSource = `
    void main() {
      gl_FragColor = vec4(1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0);

Initializing the shaders

Now that we've defined the two shaders we need to pass them to WebGL, compile them, and link them together. The code below creates the two shaders by calling loadShader, passing the type and source for the shader. It then creates a program, attaches the shaders and links them together. If compiling or linking fails the code displays an alert

// Initialize a shader program, so WebGL knows how to draw our data
function initShaderProgram(gl, vsSource, fsSource) {
  const vertexShader = loadShader(gl, gl.VERTEX_SHADER, vsSource);
  const fragmentShader = loadShader(gl, gl.FRAGMENT_SHADER, fsSource);

  // Create the shader program

  const shaderProgram = gl.createProgram();
  gl.attachShader(shaderProgram, vertexShader);
  gl.attachShader(shaderProgram, fragmentShader);

  // If creating the shader program failed, alert

  if (!gl.getProgramParameter(shaderProgram, gl.LINK_STATUS)) {
    alert('Unable to initialize the shader program: ' + gl.getProgramInfoLog(shaderProgram));
    return null;

  return shaderProgram;

// creates a shader of the given type, uploads the source and
// compiles it.
function loadShader(gl, type, source) {
  const shader = gl.createShader(type);

  // Send the source to the shader object

  gl.shaderSource(shader, source);

  // Compile the shader program


  // See if it compiled successfully

  if (!gl.getShaderParameter(shader, gl.COMPILE_STATUS)) {
    alert('An error occurred compiling the shaders: ' + gl.getShaderInfoLog(shader));
    return null;

  return shader;

To use this code we call it like this

  const shaderProgram = initShaderProgram(gl, vsSource, fsSource);

After we've created a shader program we need to look up the locations that WebGL assigned to our inputs. In this case we have one attribute and 2 uniforms. Attributes receive values from buffers. Each iteration of the vertex shader receives the next value from the buffer assigned to that attribute. Uniforms are similar to JavaScript global variables. They stay the same value for all iterations of a shader. Since the attribute and uniform locations are specific to a single shader program we'll store them together to make them easy to pass around

  const programInfo = {
    program: shaderProgram,
    attribLocations: {
      vertexPosition: gl.getAttribLocation(shaderProgram, 'aVertexPosition'),
    uniformLocations: {
      projectionMatrix: gl.getUniformLocation(shaderProgram, 'uProjectionMatrix'),
      modelViewMatrix: gl.getUniformLocation(shaderProgram, 'uModelViewMatrix'),

Creating the square plane

Before we can render our square plane, we need to create the buffer that contains its vertex positions and put the vertex positions in it. We'll do that using a function we call initBuffers(); as we explore more advanced WebGL concepts, this routine will be augmented to create more -- and more complex -- 3D objects.

function initBuffers(gl) {

  // Create a buffer for the square's positions.

  const positionBuffer = gl.createBuffer();

  // Select the positionBuffer as the one to apply buffer
  // operations to from here out.

  gl.bindBuffer(gl.ARRAY_BUFFER, positionBuffer);

  // Now create an array of positions for the square.

  const positions = [
     1.0,  1.0,
    -1.0,  1.0,
     1.0, -1.0,
    -1.0, -1.0,

  // Now pass the list of positions into WebGL to build the
  // shape. We do this by creating a Float32Array from the
  // JavaScript array, then use it to fill the current buffer.

                new Float32Array(positions),

  return {
    position: positionBuffer,

This routine is pretty simplistic given the basic nature of the scene in this example. It starts by calling the gl object's createBuffer() method to obtain a buffer into which we'll store the vertex positions. This is then bound to the context by calling the bindBuffer() method.

Once that's done, we create a JavaScript array containing the position for each vertex of the square plane. This is then converted into an array of floats and passed into the gl object's bufferData() method to establish the vertex positions for the object.

Rendering the scene

Once the shaders are established, the locations are looked up, and the square plane's vertex positions put in a buffer, we can actually render the scene. Since we're not animating anything in this example, our drawScene() function is very simple. It uses a few utility routines we'll cover shortly.

function drawScene(gl, programInfo, buffers) {
  gl.clearColor(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0);  // Clear to black, fully opaque
  gl.clearDepth(1.0);                 // Clear everything
  gl.enable(gl.DEPTH_TEST);           // Enable depth testing
  gl.depthFunc(gl.LEQUAL);            // Near things obscure far things

  // Clear the canvas before we start drawing on it.


  // Create a perspective matrix, a special matrix that is
  // used to simulate the distortion of perspective in a camera.
  // Our field of view is 45 degrees, with a width/height
  // ratio that matches the display size of the canvas
  // and we only want to see objects between 0.1 units
  // and 100 units away from the camera.

  const fieldOfView = 45 * Math.PI / 180;   // in radians
  const aspect = gl.canvas.clientWidth / gl.canvas.clientHeight;
  const zNear = 0.1;
  const zFar = 100.0;
  const projectionMatrix = mat4.create();

  // note: glmatrix.js always has the first argument
  // as the destination to receive the result.

  // Set the drawing position to the "identity" point, which is
  // the center of the scene.
  const modelViewMatrix = mat4.create();

  // Now move the drawing position a bit to where we want to
  // start drawing the square.

  mat4.translate(modelViewMatrix,     // destination matrix
                 modelViewMatrix,     // matrix to translate
                 [-0.0, 0.0, -6.0]);  // amount to translate

  // Tell WebGL how to pull out the positions from the position
  // buffer into the vertexPosition attribute.
    const numComponents = 2;  // pull out 2 values per iteration
    const type = gl.FLOAT;    // the data in the buffer is 32bit floats
    const normalize = false;  // don't normalize
    const stride = 0;         // how many bytes to get from one set of values to the next
                              // 0 = use type and numComponents above
    const offset = 0;         // how many bytes inside the buffer to start from
    gl.bindBuffer(gl.ARRAY_BUFFER, buffers.position);

  // Tell WebGL to use our program when drawing


  // Set the shader uniforms


    const offset = 0;
    const vertexCount = 4;
    gl.drawArrays(gl.TRIANGLE_STRIP, offset, vertexCount);

The first step is to clear the canvas to our background color; then we establish the camera's perspective. We set a field of view of 45°, with a width to height ratio that match the display dimensions of our canvas. We also specify that we only want objects between 0.1 and 100 units from the camera to be rendered.

Then we establish the position of the square plane by loading the identity position and translating away from the camera by 6 units. After that, we bind the square's vertex buffer to the attribute the shader is using for aVertexPosition and we tell WebGL how to pull the data out of it. Finally we draw the object by calling the drawArrays() method.

View the complete code | Open this demo on a new page

Matrix utility operations

Matrix operations might seem complicated but they are actually pretty simple if you take them one step at a time. Generally people use a matrix library rather than writing their own. In our case we're using the popular glMatrix library.

See also

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 Last updated by: joseph-long,