Arrow function expressions

Διαβάζετε την αγγλική έκδοση αυτού του περιεχομένου, καθώς δεν διατίθεται ακόμη σε αυτή τη γλώσσα. Βοηθήστε μας να μεταφράσουμε αυτό το άρθρο!

An arrow function expression is a syntactically compact alternative to a regular function expression, although without its own bindings to the this, arguments, super, or keywords. Arrow function expressions are ill suited as methods, and they cannot be used as constructors.


Basic syntax

(param1, param2, …, paramN) => { statements } 
(param1, param2, …, paramN) => expression
// equivalent to: => { return expression; }

// Parentheses are optional when there's only one parameter name:
(singleParam) => { statements }
singleParam => { statements }

// The parameter list for a function with no parameters should be written with a pair of parentheses.
() => { statements }

Advanced syntax

// Parenthesize the body of a function to return an object literal expression:
params => ({foo: bar})

// Rest parameters and default parameters are supported
(param1, param2, => { statements }
(param1 = defaultValue1, param2, …, paramN = defaultValueN) => { 
statements }

// Destructuring within the parameter list is also supported
var f = ([a, b] = [1, 2], {x: c} = {x: a + b}) => a + b + c;
f(); // 6


See also "ES6 In Depth: Arrow functions" on

Two factors influenced the introduction of arrow functions: the need for shorter functions and the behavior of the this keyword.

Shorter functions

var elements = [

// This statement returns the array: [8, 6, 7, 9] {
  return element.length;

// The regular function above can be written as the arrow function below => {
  return element.length;
}); // [8, 6, 7, 9]

// When there is only one parameter, we can remove the surrounding parentheses => {
  return element.length;
}); // [8, 6, 7, 9]

// When the only statement in an arrow function is `return`, we can remove `return` and remove
// the surrounding curly brackets => element.length); // [8, 6, 7, 9]

// In this case, because we only need the length property, we can use destructuring parameter:
// Notice that the `length` corresponds to the property we want to get whereas the
// obviously non-special `lengthFooBArX` is just the name of a variable which can be changed
// to any valid variable name you want{ length: lengthFooBArX }) => lengthFooBArX); // [8, 6, 7, 9]

// This destructuring parameter assignment can also be written as seen below. However, note that in
// this example we are not assigning `length` value to the made up property. Instead, the literal name
// itself of the variable `length` is used as the property we want to retrieve from the object.{ length }) => length); // [8, 6, 7, 9] 

No separate this

Before arrow functions, every new function defined its own this value based on how the function was called:

  • A new object in the case of a constructor.
  • undefined in strict mode function calls.
  • The base object if the function was called as an "object method".
  • etc.

This proved to be less than ideal with an object-oriented style of programming.

function Person() {
  // The Person() constructor defines `this` as an instance of itself.
  this.age = 0;

  setInterval(function growUp() {
    // In non-strict mode, the growUp() function defines `this`
    // as the global object (because it's where growUp() is executed.), 
    // which is different from the `this`
    // defined by the Person() constructor.
  }, 1000);

var p = new Person();

In ECMAScript 3/5, the this issue was fixable by assigning the value in this to a variable that could be closed over.

function Person() {
  var that = this;
  that.age = 0;

  setInterval(function growUp() {
    // The callback refers to the `that` variable of which
    // the value is the expected object.
  }, 1000);

Alternatively, a bound function could be created so that a preassigned this value would be passed to the bound target function (the growUp() function in the example above).

An arrow function does not have its own this. The this value of the enclosing lexical scope is used; arrow functions follow the normal variable lookup rules. So while searching for this which is not present in current scope, an arrow function ends up finding the this from its enclosing scope.

Thus, in the following code, the this within the function that is passed to setInterval has the same value as the this in the lexically enclosing function:

function Person(){
  this.age = 0;

  setInterval(() => {
    this.age++; // |this| properly refers to the Person object
  }, 1000);

var p = new Person();

Relation with strict mode

Given that this comes from the surrounding lexical context, strict mode rules with regard to this are ignored.

var f = () => { 'use strict'; return this; };
f() === window; // or the global object

All other strict mode rules apply normally.

Invoked through call or apply

Since arrow functions do not have their own this, the methods call() and apply() can only pass in parameters. Any this argument is ignored.

var adder = {
  base: 1,

  add: function(a) {
    var f = v => v + this.base;
    return f(a);

  addThruCall: function(a) {
    var f = v => v + this.base;
    var b = {
      base: 2

    return, a);

console.log(adder.add(1));         // This would log 2
console.log(adder.addThruCall(1)); // This would log 2 still

No binding of arguments

Arrow functions do not have their own arguments object. Thus, in this example, arguments is simply a reference to the arguments of the enclosing scope:

var arguments = [1, 2, 3];
var arr = () => arguments[0];

arr(); // 1

function foo(n) {
  var f = () => arguments[0] + n; // foo's implicit arguments binding. arguments[0] is n
  return f();

foo(3); // 6

In most cases, using rest parameters is a good alternative to using an arguments object.

function foo(n) { 
  var f = (...args) => args[0] + n;
  return f(10); 

foo(1); // 11

Arrow functions used as methods

As stated previously, arrow function expressions are best suited for non-method functions. Let's see what happens when we try to use them as methods:

'use strict';

var obj = { // does not create a new scope
  i: 10,
  b: () => console.log(this.i, this),
  c: function() {
    console.log(this.i, this);

obj.b(); // prints undefined, Window {...} (or the global object)
obj.c(); // prints 10, Object {...}

Arrow functions do not have their own this. Another example involving Object.defineProperty():

'use strict';

var obj = {
  a: 10

Object.defineProperty(obj, 'b', {
  get: () => {
    console.log(this.a, typeof this.a, this); // undefined 'undefined' Window {...} (or the global object)
    return this.a + 10; // represents global object 'Window', therefore 'this.a' returns 'undefined'

Use of the new operator

Arrow functions cannot be used as constructors and will throw an error when used with new.

var Foo = () => {};
var foo = new Foo(); // TypeError: Foo is not a constructor

Use of prototype property

Arrow functions do not have a prototype property.

var Foo = () => {};
console.log(Foo.prototype); // undefined

Use of the yield keyword

The yield keyword may not be used in an arrow function's body (except when permitted within functions further nested within it). As a consequence, arrow functions cannot be used as generators.

Function body

Arrow functions can have either a "concise body" or the usual "block body".

In a concise body, only an expression is specified, which becomes the implicit return value. In a block body, you must use an explicit return statement.

var func = x => x * x;                  
// concise body syntax, implied "return"

var func = (x, y) => { return x + y; }; 
// with block body, explicit "return" needed

Returning object literals

Keep in mind that returning object literals using the concise body syntax params => {object:literal} will not work as expected.

var func = () => { foo: 1 };
// Calling func() returns undefined!

var func = () => { foo: function() {} };
// SyntaxError: function statement requires a name

This is because the code inside braces ({}) is parsed as a sequence of statements (i.e. foo is treated like a label, not a key in an object literal).

You must wrap the object literal in parentheses:

var func = () => ({ foo: 1 });

Line breaks

An arrow function cannot contain a line break between its parameters and its arrow.

var func = (a, b, c)
  => 1;
// SyntaxError: expected expression, got '=>'

However, this can be amended by putting the line break after the arrow or using parentheses/braces as seen below to ensure that the code stays pretty and fluffy. You can also put line breaks between arguments.

var func = (a, b, c) =>

var func = (a, b, c) => (

var func = (a, b, c) => {
  return 1

var func = (
) => 1;
// no SyntaxError thrown

Parsing order

Although the arrow in an arrow function is not an operator, arrow functions have special parsing rules that interact differently with operator precedence compared to regular functions.

let callback;

callback = callback || function() {}; // ok

callback = callback || () => {};
// SyntaxError: invalid arrow-function arguments

callback = callback || (() => {});    // ok

More examples

// An empty arrow function returns undefined
let empty = () => {};

(() => 'foobar')(); 
// Returns "foobar"
// (this is an Immediately Invoked Function Expression)

var simple = a => a > 15 ? 15 : a; 
simple(16); // 15
simple(10); // 10

let max = (a, b) => a > b ? a : b;

// Easy array filtering, mapping, ...

var arr = [5, 6, 13, 0, 1, 18, 23];

var sum = arr.reduce((a, b) => a + b);
// 66

var even = arr.filter(v => v % 2 == 0); 
// [6, 0, 18]

var double = => v * 2);
// [10, 12, 26, 0, 2, 36, 46]

// More concise promise chains
promise.then(a => {
  // ...
}).then(b => {
  // ...

// Parameterless arrow functions that are visually easier to parse
setTimeout( () => {
  console.log('I happen sooner');
  setTimeout( () => {
    // deeper code
    console.log('I happen later');
  }, 1);
}, 1);


Specification Status Comment
ECMAScript 2015 (6th Edition, ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Arrow Function Definitions' in that specification.
Standard Initial definition.
ECMAScript Latest Draft (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Arrow Function Definitions' in that specification.

Browser compatibility

Update compatibility data on GitHub
ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung InternetNode.js
Arrow functionsChrome Full support 45Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 22
Full support 22
Notes The initial implementation of arrow functions in Firefox made them automatically strict. This has been changed as of Firefox 24. The use of 'use strict'; is now required.
Notes Prior to Firefox 39, a line terminator (\n) was incorrectly allowed after arrow function arguments. This has been fixed to conform to the ES2015 specification and code like () \n => {} will now throw a SyntaxError in this and later versions.
IE No support NoOpera Full support 32Safari Full support 10WebView Android Full support 45Chrome Android Full support 45Firefox Android Full support 22
Full support 22
Notes The initial implementation of arrow functions in Firefox made them automatically strict. This has been changed as of Firefox 24. The use of 'use strict'; is now required.
Notes Prior to Firefox 39, a line terminator (\n) was incorrectly allowed after arrow function arguments. This has been fixed to conform to the ES2015 specification and code like () \n => {} will now throw a SyntaxError in this and later versions.
Opera Android Full support 32Safari iOS Full support 10Samsung Internet Android Full support 5.0nodejs Full support Yes
Trailing comma in parametersChrome Full support 58Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 52IE No support NoOpera Full support 45Safari ? WebView Android Full support 58Chrome Android Full support 58Firefox Android Full support 52Opera Android Full support 43Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android Full support 7.0nodejs Full support Yes


Full support  
Full support
No support  
No support
Compatibility unknown  
Compatibility unknown
See implementation notes.
See implementation notes.

See also